Bloody Sunday 1920: The 32 killed at home, at Croke Park, in Dublin Castle
32 people were killed on Bloody Sunday, or died later of wounds received that day
Lieut Peter Ames
Lieutenant Peter Ames (32): Ames was born into a wealthy American family in Pennsylvania. He moved to London in 1912, joined the Grenadier Guards in 1917, and served in the first World War. After the war he served in MI5 as an undercover agent. He slept with a loaded pistol under his bed, but was caught by surprise on Bloody Sunday morning and shot dead at 38 Upper Mount Street. His engagement to his fiancée Millicent Orr-Ewing was announced in the New York Times on the day he died.
Lieutenant George Bennett (38): Bennett was born in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) to an English father and Dutch mother. He was educated at Sherborne School, one of England’s top public schools, and Oxford. He served in France in the first World War, and was mentioned in dispatches. He and Ames were regarded as the leaders of the Cairo Gang, and were shot together by Vinny Byrne, a member of Michael Collins’s squad, in Bennett’s bedroom. Byrne said he told them as he pulled the trigger “the Lord have mercy on your souls”.
Captain William Newberry (45): Newberry was a barrister involved in court-martial proceedings against the IRA. He tried to block entry to his attackers at 92 Lower Baggot Street.
Lieutenant Leonard Aidan Wilde (35): Wilde was one of two men shot dead in the Gresham Hotel. According to the newly-published The Dead of the Irish Revolution by Eunan O’Halpin and Daithí Ó Corráin, Wilde was a British intelligence officer posing as a commercial traveller. He appears to have lived in Cuba, Spain and France. According to his assassin James Cahill, he answered the door at the hotel declaring himself to be “Alan Wilde, British intelligence officer, just back from Spain”.
Captain Patrick Francis McCormack (47): Castlebar-born McCormack was a vet who had served in the Royal Army Veterinary Corps (RAVC) during the first World War. He had settled in Egypt after the war, and was in Ireland to purchase horses for the Alexandria Turf Club. It would appear that he was killed in the Gresham Hotel in the mistaken belief that he was a British spy. His mother, Kate McCormack, wrote to the minister for defence Richard Mulcahy two years later protesting at his killing. “I am 75 years of age and naturally I felt deeply the loss of my only support in life, but I feel more deeply still that charges of dishonourable conduct against his country should be preferred against him by people who have always known him to be a supporter of the national aspirations of the Irish people.” She added that she was a cousin of Michael Davitt. Mulcahy, at the behest of Collins, responded: “There was no particular charge against him except that he was an enemy soldier.”
Captain Geoffrey Baggallay (29): Baggallay was a pre-war veteran of the British army attached to the Machine Gun Corps. He was wounded twice during the war before losing his leg at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917. Given his disability he is unlikely to have been involved in intelligence. Instead, he was employed as a courts-martial officer. He was shot dead at 119 Lower Baggot Street while trying to escape through his bedroom window. According to eyewitness accounts, the future taoiseach Seán Lemass was one of three men who killed him. Lemass was always coy about his activities in the revolutionary period. “I don’t like talking about it because individuals were killed,” he once said. Four men were arrested following the shooting, and one, Thomas Whelan, was executed. Whelan was one of the “forgotten 10” reburied with State honours in 2001.
Lieutenant Henry James Angliss (28): Angliss would appear to have been born in Enniskillen, Co Fermanagh. He won the distinguished conduct medal (DCM) during the first World War, and took part on the White side in the Russian civil war against the Bolsheviks. After returning to London in 1919, he was recruited as a spy operating under the alias Patrick McMahon. A drunken Angliss admitted to IRA spies that he had killed John Lynch, a Sinn Féin councillor who was shot dead in a Dublin hotel. Angliss was gunned down at 22 Lower Mount Street.
Captain John Fitzgerald (22): Fitzgerald was another Irish-born veteran of the first World War and the Russian civil war. He was from a middle-class family in Cappagh, Co Tipperary, and was given up for dead twice before he was killed. He crashed his plane in 1917 while serving with the Royal Flying Corps over France and was captured by the Germans. He played dead after the IRA shot him in the arm while he was serving as a barrack defence officer for the Royal Irish Constabulary in Co Clare. He fled to Dublin and was shot dead at 28 Earlsfort Terrace. He may have been mistaken for a suspected British spy, Clement Patrick Fitzpatrick, who left Ireland five days after Bloody Sunday.
Lieutenant Donald MacLean (31): MacClean was a Scottish war veteran and former policeman. He was recruited in March 1920 for British intelligence. He was captured by the IRA at the Spa Hotel, Lisdoonvarna, Co Clare, along with another man. Both were posing as commercial travellers. MacLean was given five days to leave Ireland. He ignored the warning and the Mid-Clare Brigade passed his details on to Collins. He was staying with his wife and six-year-old boy at 117 Morehampton Road. He asked that he not be shot in front of them.
Thomas Smith (47): Smith, a father of eight, was a wholly innocent party who was shot alongside MacLean on Bloody Sunday. He was the landlord of 117 Morehampton Road. His 10-year-old son, Percival, answered the door to approximately 20 men. Smith was shot dead with MacLean. MacLean’s brother-in-law John Caldow was also shot. He survived though severely wounded. “He Smith] did not take part in politics, but was very friendly with Captain MacLean, who had just resigned from the army,” Smith’s wife told a military inquiry into the shooting.
Major Charles Dowling (29): Dowling was educated at Rugby School, a well known English public school, and at Sandhurst College, from where he was commissioned into the Grenadier Guards in 1911. He was wounded three times during the first World War. His war ended in 1915 when a shell left him with recurring dizzy spells. Charles Dalton, the youngest gunman on Bloody Sunday, had courted the maid in 28 Upper Pembroke Street, and she identified where the secret agents in the house, including Dowling, were sleeping.
Captain Leonard Price (28): Price was another first World War veteran. He won the Military Cross one of the highest honours for bravery in the British army. Price, along with Dowling, were shot in their pyjamas. A fierce fight ensured, and Price was fatally wounded at the bottom of the stairs. Four other British officers staying in the house were wounded but survived. Caroline Woodcock, the wife of Lieutenant Wilfrid Woodcock, said she owed her husband’s survival to the fact the “murderers had been so panic-stricken themselves and their hands so shaky that their firing had been wild in the extreme”.
Temporary Cadet Francis Garniss (34): Garniss was not a British spy but one of the first Auxiliaries to arrive in Ireland. Married with five children, he was a pre-war British army veteran and he was in Ireland barely a month when he and another Auxiliary, Cecil Morris, responded to the shooting at Upper Mount Street. On returning to Beggar’s Bush barracks to call for reinforcements, the pair were captured by the IRA and shot in the garden of a house on Northumberland Road.
Temporary Cadet Cecil Morris (24): Morris from Croydon, Surrey, gave up his job in his father’s hairdressing shop to fight in the first World War. He become a tram conductor after the war. He joined the Auxiliaries in October 1920 after being laid off from that job. He was survived by his widow and his son, also called Cecil.
Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Montgomery (40): Montgomery was the highest ranked British agent to be killed as a result of Bloody Sunday. He was a cousin of the future Field Marshal Bernard “Monty” Montgomery of Desert Rats fame, but who was involved during the War of Independence in counterinsurgency in Co Cork. After a distinguished career in the Royal Navy during the first World War, in which he was mentioned in dispatches six times, Hugh Montgomery was seconded to army intelligence in Dublin. He was shot in his lodgings at 28 Pembroke Street and died of his wounds on December 10th in Bray, Co Wicklow.
AFTERNOON (CROKE PARK)
Michael Hogan (24): Hogan was captain of the Tipperary team and also captain of the Grangemockler company of the IRA. He was only one of two IRA men on the Tipperary team, the other being Tommy Ryan. Hogan was born into a farming family in 1896. He joined Sinn Féin in 1919, and later the local company of the Irish Volunteers. On the day before the match Hogan and a few others had been involved in an altercation on a train with men from the Lincolnshire regiment. As a consequence Hogan did not stay in Barry’s Hotel that night with the rest of the team. He was shot in the back near what is now Hill 16. In 1924 the newly-built stand in Croke Park was named after him.
Tom Ryan (27): Not to be confused with the Tipperary player Tommy Ryan, Tom Ryan was shot dead on Bloody Sunday while attending to the dying Michael Hogan. Ryan was from Glenbrien, Co Wexford, and was one of the IRA volunteers selected to carry out executions on Bloody Sunday, but the person he was detailed to kill on the North Circular Road was not there. Ryan was a gas fitter who was involved in a IRA raid on Collinstown Aerodrome (now Dublin Airport) in which he earned the nickname “more rope” because of how he tied the guards up.
William Robinson (11): According to Michael Foley, the author of The Bloodied Field, William Robinson was the first to be shot at Croke Park. He was sitting in a tree at the corner of the modern-day Hogan and Davin stands watching the match. When the first army trucks reached the canal bridge overlooking Croke Park, men leapt out and made straight for the ground. Some took positions along the bridge and began firing. Robinson was shot in the shoulder and chest. He died two days later of his wounds in Drumcondra Hospital. He was the son of Christopher Robinson, a labourer of 15 Little Britain Street.
Jerome O’Leary (10): Jerome O’Leary from Blessington Street in Dublin had been lifted on to the wall at the back of the Canal End by another spectator so he would get a better view of the match. He was the youngest to die on Bloody Sunday. He was the son of a British soldier, also called Jerome. In June 1921, although his son had been killed by British forces, Jerome Snr was shot by the IRA as a suspected spy. He survived, and fled to England with his family. His son’s grave in Glasnevin Cemetery went unmarked until last year when the GAA erected a headstone through its Bloody Sunday Graves Project. Despite repeated efforts no contemporary relative of Jerome Jr could be found to attend the unveiling. He is, however, the only one of the three children killed that day for whom a photograph still exists.
Michael Feery (40): Feery, of Gardiner Place in Dublin, was shot dead by the same army he fought for in the first World War. He never would have imagined dying in such ignominious circumstances from a thigh wound after he became impaled on a spike while trying to flee the shooting at Croke Park. His body lay in a morgue unclaimed for five days. He had been out of work since returning from the war, and a doctor who examined his body after the shooting stated he looked “badly nourished” and was missing a number of teeth. He is buried in a mass grave in the St Paul’s cemetery extension in Glasnevin.
Patrick O’Dowd (57): O’Dowd was a builder’s labourer from Buckingham Street in Dublin who worked in Fairview. He was shot helping other people down over the back wall. As he was shot he fell on top of another man who was trying to flee the shooting. He was survived by his widow Julia and two children. He now has a grave marker as a result of the Bloody Sunday Graves Project.
John William Scott (14): Scott was from Fitzroy Avenue in the shadow of Croke Park. He attended St Patrick’s School in Drumcondra. Scott received a gunshot wound to the chest and died on the kitchen table of a neighbour’s house. He was one of three schoolboys killed on Bloody Sunday, and among eight victims who had no marked grave until the GAA erected a headstone in 2018.
James Teehan (26): Teehan was originally from Tipperary but lived and worked with his brother John in his public house on Green Street in Smithfield. He said goodbye to his brother after the pair shut the pub for the afternoon. Teehan was crushed to death as he tried to escape the crowds and was pronounced dead on admission to Jervis Street Hospital. He is buried in Co Tipperary.
James Burke (44): Burke was another crushed to death during the stampede to escape the shooting at Croke Park. He worked as a driver with the Terenure Laundry and lived in Windy Arbour with his wife Annie and their five children.
Jane Boyle (26): Boyle was from 18 Lennox Street and worked for a pork butcher. She was the only woman to die on Bloody Sunday. Her death was particularly tragic as she was due to marry her fiancée James Byron the following week. The couple went to mass at St Kevin’s Church on Harrington Street on Sunday morning and proceeded to Croke Park afterwards. When the firing started, they fled, but Jane was shot in the back and died on the spot. She was buried later that week in her wedding gown. Her grave went unmarked until 2015. The headstone was unveiled by her great-nephew Dr Eamonn Boyle and Professor Tony Boyle, both of whom had travelled from the United States to be there.
Joseph Traynor (20): Traynor from Ballymount in Dublin was an IRA volunteer who was attending the match as a spectator. He was also the captain of the Young Emmets Gaelic football team based on the Naas Road. He was shot twice in the back while trying to escape over the wall at the Canal End of the ground. He was carried to a house adjoining Croke Park and then transferred to Jervis Street Hospital. He attended the game with his friend PJ Ryan, who had to inform Joseph’s father that his son had died.
James Matthews (38): Matthews lived at a tenement in North Cumberland Street. As a jobbing labourer, he took work whenever he could get it. He died after being shot in the leg at Croke Park, and was buried in an unmarked grave in Glasnevin Cemetery. The couple had four daughters. The GAA erected a headstone to his memory in 2016. Among those in attendance was his 95-year-old daughter Nancy Dillon, who was born six months after he died.
Daniel Carroll (30): Carroll, from Templederry, Co Tipperary, was a bar manager in Drumcondra who was shot on exiting the ground. He had taken the day off to attend the match, and died of wounds two days after Bloody Sunday. His brother Joseph had served with the British army in the first World War.
Tom Hogan (19): Thomas Hogan was the last of the Croke Park victims to die. He was from Kilmallock, Co Limerick, and lived in St James’s Terrace in Dublin. His early life was blighted by tragedy. He was an orphan by the age of 11 and his sister Katie also died young. Hogan was an IRA volunteer while also working as a mechanic. He was shot in the shoulder and died in the Mater Hospital five days after Bloody Sunday from gangrene.
NIGHT (DUBLIN CASTLE)
Richard (Dick) McKee (27): McKee was a committed republican from the inception of the Irish Volunteers in 1913 until his death as a result of Bloody Sunday. McKee was the officer commanding the Dublin Brigade during the War of Independence, and was involved in the planning of the Bloody Sunday shootings. He was picked up along with Peadar Clancy at 1.30am on the morning of Bloody Sunday at 36 Gloucester Street and brought to Dublin Castle. His whereabouts had been divulged by a spy, James “Shanker” Ryan who was later shot dead by the IRA. McKee and Clancy were taken to Dublin Castle for interrogation. The British authorities claimed they were shot trying to escape, but there was evidence they had been tortured before being shot. Marlborough Barracks was named McKee Barracks after him.
Peadar Clancy (32): Clancy was from Kilrush, Co Clare, and managed the Republican Outfitters in Talbot Street, a prominent meeting point for the IRA during the War of Independence. Four weeks prior to Bloody Sunday, Seán Treacy had been shot dead leaving the shop. Clancy was the IRA’s director of munitions at the time of his death and vice-commandant of the Dublin Brigade. Pat McCrae of the squad said McKee and Clancy were “great personalities idolised next to Michael Collins by all men of the Dublin Brigade”. Clancy Quay, where Clancy Barracks was located until its closure in 2001, is named after him.
Conor Clune (27): Clune was a nephew of the Archbishop of Perth Joseph Clune. Archbishop Clune was asked to be an intermediary by the British government for peace talks with Sinn Féin and the IRA. Clune was arrested in Vaughan’s Hotel on the eve of Bloody Sunday. Michael Collins, Dick McKee, Peadar Clancy and others had left the hotel by the time the Auxiliaries raided it. Clune would seem to have been an entirely innocent party who had no part in the planning of Bloody Sunday. He worked for a co-operative society in his native Raheen in Co Clare, and was in Dublin to have the books audited.
OTHER RELATED DEATHS
Patrick (Paddy) Moran (33): The only IRA fatality arising out of Bloody Sunday was Roscommon-born Paddy Moran. Moran was a veteran of the Lockout of 1913 and the Easter Rising. He was later picked up and charged with the murder of Lieutenant Eames. He protested his innocence and declined to escape from Mountjoy Prison in March 1921 with other republican prisoners. He was hanged on March 14th, 1921. Moran was one of the “forgotten 10” who were given State burials in 2001.
According to The Dead of the Irish Revolution, there were five other deaths on Bloody Sunday related to the War of Independence, but not to the events themselves.
Austin Cowley (67), a retired journalist, was shot dead in Navan; Harry Clement Jays (22) was a Black and Tan shot dead in Cork; William Barnett (35) was shot dead while out walking his dog near Mountjoy Square late at night; Arthur Boundary (age unknown) was a soldier who died from wounds in Belfast; and Henry Spenle (age unknown), an Auxiliary took his own life in his bedroom in Dublin Castle where he was being treated for depression.