Dr TK Whitaker: A conversation between him and Albert Borschette, the Luxembourg permanent representative to the EEC, is revealed in the latest volume of Irish foreign policy papers from October 1961 to April 1965.   Photograph: Tom Lawlor

Ireland would join the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (Nato) if that was the price to pay to join the European Economic Community, top Irish offic(...)

Angela Merkel: “I see the European Union as our life insurance.” Photograph: EPA

It’s a grim winter’s day in Berlin, and the political climate matches the weather. Everywhere Angela Merkel looks there are storm clouds, as the value(...)

 The story of how Adolf Eichmann, one of the architects of the “final solution”, was brought to justice features in the film The People vs Fritz Bauer. Photograph: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Just back from Japan last autumn and full of renewed admiration for that extraordinary country, with its endless resilience, efficiency, and decorum, (...)

French president Emmanuel Macron and German chancellor Angela Merkel: Critics say the treaty lacks ambition and does not address the euro zone, migrants or social and environmental policy. Photograph: Wolfgang Rattay

French president Emmanuel Macron and German chancellor Angela Merkel will meet on Tuesday morning in the coronation room of the town hall in the Germa(...)

All Quiet on the Western Front: from the film of the novel by Erich Maria Remarque. Photograph: Ullstein Bild via Getty

For some years after the end of the first World War, the memoirs of generals and statesmen dominated publication about it – none more prominently than(...)

German chancellor Angela Merkel and  leader of the conservative Christian Social Union (CSU) Horst Seehofer: Mr Seehofer has the backing of his party to push through his plan on Monday, which would force Dr Merkel to sack him. Photograph:  Odd Andersen/AFP/Getty Images

The fronts in Germany’s government crisis hardened on Friday when chancellor Angela Merkel was accused by her Bavarian allies of “splitting” Europe in(...)

Michel Barnier (left) is known for his austere approach to life, while David Davis  likes to think of himself as “a charming bastard”.

The frozen streets of Helsinki lie silent as the mercury plunges to -16C. But inside the British embassy, the lights are burning. David Davis, the man(...)

The president of the French parliament,  François de Rugy,  with the president of the  German parliament, Wolfgang Schäuble, before a meeting to mark the 55th anniversary of the Élysée Treaty in Berlin. Photograph: John MacDougall/AFP/Getty Images

French president Emmanuel Macron and acting German chancellor Angela Merkel issued a joint declaration on Monday to mark the 55th anniversary of the T(...)

French president Emmanuel Macron welcomes German chancellor Angela Merkel at the Élysée Palace in Paris on Friday. Photograph: Ludovic Marin/AFP/Getty Images

French president Emmanuel Macron received German chancellor Angela Merkel at the Élysée Palace on Friday to discuss what Mr Macron calls the “renaissa(...)

German Chancellor Angela Merkel reacts as the  first exit poll results are announced in the German federal election. Photograph: Kai Pfaffenbach/Reuters

After a lacklustre campaign comes a result that will probably produce a government of continuity, not of rupture. But make no mistake: changes are afo(...)

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