File picture shows  entrance of the University of Lagos. Photograph: Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty

BBC documentary sent undercover journalists into the universities of Lagos and Ghana

People walk through Balogun market in streets around Lagos Island. Lagos is the world’s 10th largest city with between 17 and 22 million people, although no-one seems to be counting. Photograph: Stefan Heunis/AFP/Getty

#StopRobbingUs campaign arose following arrest of developer for carrying laptop, iPhone

Recurring issue: a newspaper in Kampala carries a report on Eritrean footballers who disappeared from a hotel they were staying in the Council for East and Central Africa Football Associations in 2012. Photograph: Isaac Kasamani/AFP/Getty

Security at event in Uganda ‘beefed up’ after five members of under-20s team abscond

People gather at the scene of an attack on an Italian military convoy in Mogadishu on Tuesday. Photograph: Said Yusuf Warsame/EPA

US military Africa Command claims three killed were supporting Islamist operations

The first arrival of 66 refugees and asylum seekers from Libya at the Kigali international airport in  Rwanda. Photograph: Minema/AFP

New programme involves African Union and the United Nations refugee agency

Ugandan politician Robert Kyagulanyi, better known as pop star Bobi Wine is challengeing  long-standing president Yoweri Museveni’s power  in a byelection. Photograph: Biko Macoins/AFP/Getty

Tensions rise as both men back opposing candidates in election in west of country

Presidents Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria and Nana Akufo-Addo of Ghana. A presidential election will take place in Ghana next year. Photograph:  Issouf Sanogo/AFP/Getty Images

Plot targeted at the presidency had ‘the ultimate aim of destabilising the country’

Soldiers close to offices of humanitarian group, Action Against Hunger in Maiduguri, Nigeria, September 19th. Photograph: Audu Marte/ AFP/Getty

Action Against Hunger accused by military of giving Islamic insurgents drugs and food

A Nigerian boy in a transit centre in Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria, shortly after he was released from military detention in 2017. His father remains locked up in Giwa Barracks. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Thousands of child suspects held in dangerous conditions as Boko Haram war continues

A migrant detention centre in Tripoli, Libya, in 2015.  Refugees and migrants who spoke to The Irish Times by phone were apprehensive about a move to Rwanda. Photograph: Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Hundreds in detention centres expected to be transferred under deal partly funded by EU

Refugees and migrants at Zawiya detention centre, in the northwest of Libya, in early 2019.

Exploitation, extortion and murder allegedly took place in Libyan detention centre

Pope Francis arrived in Mozambique on Wednesday, and will then travel to Madagascar and Mauritius. Photograph: Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images

Papal visit began in Mozambique, where he spoke about ‘fraternal reconciliation’

A Cameroonian policeman and a gendarme at a polling station in southwestern Cameroon, during last October’s presidential election. Insurgents have been fighting the West African country’s francophone government in a bid to carve out an independent state they hope will be named Ambazonia. Photograph: Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images

Unicef says 80% of schools in English-speaking region have been shut down

Migrants and their belongings after July 2rd attack on a detention centre near Tripoli. Photograph: Ismail Zitouny

Air strike survivors fear being detained by Libyan authorities or kidnap by smugglers

Sally Hayden and Yosi in Luxembourg: Yosi (16) was told by authorities he was 25, perhaps to circumvent fact minors benefit from greater protection.

Luxembourg Letter: Europeans have little idea of abuses used to solidify EU borders

Popstar and opposition leader Bobi Wine speaks at a campaign event in Mpigi, Uganda.  Photograph: Sally Hayden.

Sally Hayden on the campaign trail with singer seeking to oust long-time leader Yoweri Museveni

A health team disinfects and decontaminates the home of  an Ebola patient who was admitted to a treatment centre the previous day in Ngongolio, Beni, North Kivu province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Photograph: EPA

Healthcare personnel hopeful deadly disease can be eradicated within six months

Trafficking survivors  interviewed by Human Rights Watch said they were detained and refused contact  with family when they returned to Nigeria. Photograph: Fati Abubakar /AFP/Getty Images

Traumatised women are being detained by authorities, says Human Rights Watch

Kenyans watch football in a bar in  Nairobi: the country’s sixth census involves shutting down bars so as to enumerate people. Photograph:   Yasuyoshi Chiba/AFP

Government move to shut venues on day of football match draws electorate’s ire

Ugandan writer Siima Itabaaza referred to Bono as ‘our favourite white saviour’ at the conference. Photograph: AP/Pool/Juda Ngwenya

Kampala Letter: Activist group calls for end to white people being depicted as heroes in Africa

A migrant  being rescued at sea after diving from the Open Arms ship off the coast of Lampedusa, southern Italy. Photograph: EPA/Italian Coast Guard

Detainee says guards threaten to shoot if they try to bury corpses

A surveillance camera in Kampala:  some say such gadgets contradict the central tenets of democratic society. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Rights groups fear Huawei facial recognition devices part of sinister clampdown on dissent

African Development Bank president Akinwumi Adesina says Brexit is threatening Africa’s economic prospects in a way that’s “increasing by the day”. Photograph: Emmanuel Herman/Reuters

Students in landlocked African country seeking explanations for UK’s EU exit, lecturer says

The measles vaccine must be kept cold, making it hard to transport in DRC. File photograph: Lindsey Wasson/Reuters

More than 2,700, the majority children, die this year as vaccination coverage remains low

Omar al-Bashir: trial on corruption charges rather than  genocide  dismissed by many as a mere “sideshow”. Photograph: Ashraf Shazly/AFP

Amnesty says Bashir should be tried in ICC for crimes against humanity and genocide

More than one million people in Uganda contracted malaria  within the past two months

Unusually prolonged rains in June gave mosquitoes more time to breed

 A young woman reacts as a health worker injects her with the Ebola vaccine, in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, on August 5th. Photograph:   Baz Ratner/Reuters

About 90% of those infected can survive if treated early, in boost to fight against outbreak

Unaccompanied minors, who have escaped Eritrea, chat in Shagarab refugee camp, eastern Sudan. Many of those crossing the border are girls trying to escape mandatory, indefinite military service. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

Indefinite national service is causing heartache and fuelling migration to Europe

Salah Estwani, 26, has received instructions from German authorities to go back to Syria. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Asylum seekers say parties use issue for political gain ‘and refugees always pay the price’

A Congolese health worker administers ebola vaccine to a child at the Himbi Health Centre in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo. Photograph: Reuters

Global community urged to do more to contain outbreak, which has killed 1,600 to date

Sudanese deputy chief of the ruling miliary council Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo (R) and protest movement Alliance for Freedom and Changes leader Ahmad al-Rabiah shake hands after signing an agreement before African Union and Ethiopian mediators in Khartoum early on July 17th, 2019. Photograph: Ebrahim Hamid/AFP/Getty Images

Agreement dismissed as not fit for purpose by some pro-democracy protesters

Asasey Hotel  in Kismayo, Somalia:  26  people, including Somali-Canadian journalist Hodan Nalayeh and her husband Farid Jama, were killed there in an attack by Al Shabaab. Photograph: AP

Hodan Nalayeh was killed in terrorist attack in Kismayo after returning from Canada

Medhanie Tesfamariam Berhe during his trial in Sicily: now held in a deportation centre. Photograph: Andreas Solaro/AFP

Medhanie Tesfamariam Berhe acquitted of being a human trafficking kingpin

African Union Commission chairman Moussa Faki Mahamat  speaks at a joint press conference with UN secretary general António Guterres following the opening session of the African-Regional High Level Conference on counter-terrorism in Nairobi. Photograph: Tony Karumba/AFP/Getty Images

UN secretary general urges more support for Sahel countries dealing with jihadi groups

Majok Lam from South Sudan in Kakuma refugee camp, northwest Kenya, in October 2018: would like to return home with an education. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Conflict-fleeing refugees celebrate independence day far from home

A family member reacts during the burial of a victim of the Ebola virus  in Butembo,  Democratic Republic of the Congo. Photograph: John Wessels/AFP/Getty Images

Beni Letter: Those involved in burying victims of the disease face high degree of risk

Bosco Ntaganda, who maintained his innocence during his trial, faces a maximum life sentence following his convictions at the global court in The Hague File Photograph: Paul Herera/Reuters

Bosco Ntaganda convicted of 18 counts including murder, rape, sexual slavery

 Migrants sit outside the  detention centre in the Tajoura suburb of Tripoli, Libya, which was  hit by an air strike earlier this week.   Photograph: Reuters/Ismail Zitouny

Migrants claim fighters are storing weapons at Libyan detention centres

Debris covers the ground after an airstrike at a detention centre in Tajoura, east of Tripoli in Libya. Photograph: Hazem Ahmed/PA

‘After the first strike hit, we knocked the door to open it but the policemen refused’

Migrants carry the remains of their belongings from among rubble at Tajoura  detention centre in Tripoli on Wednesday, after it was hit by an air strike. Photograph: Ismail Zitouny/Reuters

Refugees and migrants call for evacuation after at least 40 killed in Tripoli attack

Evangelical pastor Biodun Fatoyinbo said the past few days had been “sobering”. Photograph: YouTube/PastorBiodun TV

‘Gucci pastor’ in Nigeria accused of rape takes leave of absence over allegations

Leaders from the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas) met in Nigerian capital Abuja on Saturday before making the announcement.

Member countries had adopted a flexible exchange rate regime

People shout slogans as they march on the streets demanding the ruling military cede power  to civilians at a demonstration in Khartoum. Photograph: Umit Bektas

Internet blocked but activists spread word of protest with graffiti, megaphones and leaflets

Renee Bach: the case against her is being brought by two mothers whose children died. They say they were led to believe Bach was a ‘medical doctor’ and her home was a ‘medical facility’

US missionary accused of posing as medic and causing deaths of children in her care

Congolese victims of ethnic violence rest inside a ward at the general hospital in Bunia, Ituri province, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Photograph: Olivia Acland/Reuters

Reports of sexual and extreme physical violence in clashes between Hema and Lendu groups

Detained migrants  protest at Zintan detention centre in May 2019. Detainees were seeking for better conditions and wanted action to prevent further  deaths.

Migrant desperation caused by conditions, disease and trauma of trying to cross Mediterranean

Videograb of Ethiopia’s prime minister Abiy Ahmed, dressed in military uniform, addressing the public on television after the failed coup attempt. Photograph: Getty Image

Prime minister urges citizens to unite against ‘evil’

A female volunteer sits with her baby at a educational meeting about Ebola in Goma, eastern DRC. The meeting is part of a community outreach initiative aimed at preparing in case the outbreak spreads to the city. Photograph: Sally Hayden

At least 1,365 people have died since the Ebola outbreak began last August

Police operate a checkpoint at the border crossing near Kasindi in eastern Congo on Wednesday. Photograph: Al-hadji Kudra Maliro/AP

Boy (5) and grandmother die after crossing into country from DRC

A child who was among 73 migrants rescued by a coast guard patrol after the inflatable boat carrying them capsized off the western Libyan coast  on Sunday. At least two died and 25 were missing. Photograph: Ayman al-Sahili/Reuters

EU accused of role in crimes against humanity in legal submission to ICC

A woman shades her head from the heat of the sun during food distribution in Mogadishu’s Shingani district in Somalia. Photograph: Abdirazak Hussein Farah/AFP/Getty Images

UN issues warning as climate-change-related drought hits Somalia ‘out of the blue’

Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari waves at the crowd while he drives around the venue during his inauguration for a second term in Abuja. Photograph: Afolabi Sotunde/Reuters

Muhammadu Buhari faces an array of challenges, including Boko Haram unrest

Allegations of corruption in Uganda’s refugee programme led to the discovery that there were 300,000 fewer refugees in the country than previously thought. Photograph: Michele Sibiloni/Getty Images

Money withheld over corruption scandal in east African country’s refugee programme

Madagascar’s president Andry Rajoelina speaks to the press as Madagascans vote in the country’s parliamentary elections on Monday.  Photograph: Rijasolo/AFP/Getty Images

Elections held in poverty-stricken island state as 79 politicians accused of taking bribes

Ugandan LGBT refugees in a protected section of Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. They fled Uganda following the anti-gay laws enacted in 2014. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Activists vow not to give up after crushing court ruling for Africa’s LGBT+ community

Ugandan LGBT+ refugees pose in Kakuma refugee camp, northwest Kenya, in October 2018. They fled their homes after the introduction of a strict anti-gay Bill. Photograph: Sally Hayden

LGBT+ community quietly optimistic Kenya will be the first east African country to do so

The UN’s refugee agency wants to resettle 2,500 refugees and migrants, currently in Libya, this year, a small percentage of those asking for it. Photograph: Zoubei Souissi/Reuters

‘We will be evacuated from Libya for good. In a few days my nightmares will end’

Kenyans collect used plastic bags from Nairobi River to resell in marketplaces near the Mukuru slum in Nairobi. Anyone selling, producing, or even carrying a plastic bag there now risks a €35,000 euro fine or up to four years in prison. Photograph: Wendy Stone/Corbis/Getty

More than 30 African countries have legislated to control usage through bans or taxes

 A woman and children harvesting  groundnuts in Malawi. More than 50%  of the country’s  18 million people live below the poverty line, making it the fourth poorest country in the world. Photograph: Getty Images

Many Malawians feel President Peter Mutharika has not met his promises on infrastructure, tackling poverty and education

Sudanese protesters are gathered during a sit-in outside military headquarters after clashing with security forces in Khartoum. Photograph:  Mohamed el-Shahed/AFP/Getty

Negotiations stalled after protesters expanded their space, leading to responsive violence

 Health workers take part in the funeral of Kahumbu Ngalyakuthi, a woman who got infected in her home village of Mutwanga, some 40km from Beni in North Kivu province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, on May 12th. Photograph: Hugh Kinsella Cunningham/EPA

Poor medical training may be factor in deaths, officials say, with 1,100 killed in outbreak so far

A migrant woman reacts inside the Anti-Illegal Immigration Agency detention centre in Tajoura, Libya  after it was hit by  shrapnel from an air strike. Photograph: Hani Amara/Reuters

Refugees held at military detention centres say they have become targets of air strikes

The aftermath of an attack on the Qasr bin Ghashir  detention centre near Tripoli on Tuesday.

Refugees and migrants were praying inside a detention centre when fighters opened fire

Members of Libyan internationally recognised government forces evacuate a family in the al-Swani area of Tripoli. Photograph: Ahmed Jadallah

Hungry refugee children are trapped in appalling conditions on Libya’s war front lines

UN secretary general Antonio Guterres  meeting Gen Khalifa Haftar: 'I reiterate that there is no military solution for the Libyan crisis, only a political one,' said Mr Guterres earlier this month. File photograph: LNA War Information Division

UN’s Guterres ‘deeply concerned’ after meeting with Libyan National Army leader

Police officers help migrants to disembark from the merchant ship Elhiblu 1 in Senglea, in Valletta’s Grand Harbour, Malta. Photograph: Darrin Zammit Lupi/Reuters

Passengers reported to have taken over tanker to prevent it being sent back to Libya

Aeham Ahmad broadcast from the streets of Damascus

Aeham Ahmad’s videos from Damascus were proof of music’s power in times of turmoil

Child refugees in Sabaa detention centre in Libya. MSF says it has found “alarming” rates of acute malnutrition in the centre in southeast Tripoli

European policies enabling 'inhumane' conditions for those who tried reaching continent

Margaret Busby became Britain’s youngest and first black woman publisher in the late 1960s, when she co-founded Allison & Busby. Photograph: Evening Standard/Getty Images

Anthology edited by Margaret Busby covers themes of racism, feminism and migration

 Sally Hayden with her award for  foreign coverage at the NewsBrands Ireland Journalism Awards in Dublin’s Mansion House. Photograph: Nick Bradshaw/The Irish Times

Sally Hayden was interviewing a South Sudanese rebel when she heard she had made the cut

The number of refugees and migrants arriving in Europe from the Mediterranean was the lowest in five years in 2018. Photograph:  Federico Scoppa/AFP/Getty Images

New figures from UNHCR demonstrate impact of reduced search and rescue operations

Migrants are rescued in the Mediterranean Sea: the EU has allocated more than €300 million to Libya with the aim of stopping migration. Photograph: EPA/Alexander Draheim

In Libya, refugees returned by EU-funded ships are thrust back into a world of exploitation

Migrants in difficulty are approached by the Aquarius. Photograph: Patrick Barr/AP

Rescue ships have alleviated a catastrophic death toll, claim charities and the UN

Migrants in the Ganzour centre in the Libyan capital Tripoli in September. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/AFP/Getty Images

Suicide attempt reported as Amnesty calls for Europe to offer more resettlement places

Illegal migrants in the Ganzour shelter in the Libyan capital of Tripoli. The UNHCR has updated its policy to say Libya is no longer a safe country to return people to. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/Getty Images

Man told friends he had lost all hope of being evacuated to a safe country

Migrants aboard the Aquarius rescue ship run by non-governmental organisations  SOS Mediterranee and Medecins Sans Frontieres. Photograph: Maud Veith/AFP/Getty Images

New figures show that one in five died trying to cross from Libya in September

Patients wait to be tested for tuberculosis, at the TB Annex Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis takes heavy toll on poor as UN seeks to curb disease

Illegal migrants sit inside the Ganzour shelter after being transferred from  the airport road due to fighting in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, a week ago. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/AFP/Getty Images

Lack of registration by UNHCR or authorities ‘makes it harder to ensure people are safe’

Migrants in a shelter who were relocated from government-run detention centres after being trapped by clashes between rival groups in Tripoli, Libya. Photograph: Hani Amara/Reuters

Desperate people trapped in war zone Libya have been sharing their experiences

African migrants, who according to the Libyan navy were rescued by the  coast guard, arrive in Tripoli on July 12th, 2018. Photograph: Stringer/AFP/Getty

Hundreds sent back to war-torn country by EU-backed coast guard report dire conditions

Diana, a shop assistant in Buziga, Kampala, claims business in phone credit is down 90 per cent since Uganda’s social media tax came in on July 1st. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

Ugandans say the charge to use social media harms education and families

Relatives of victims of the regime of former president Yahya Jammeh demonstrate in Banjul, demanding answers on the state of the investigation on the disappearance of their loved ones.  Photograph: Claire Bargeles/AFP/Getty Images

A reckoning is under way as ex-dictator Yahya Jammeh’s crimes come to light

Some of the released Chibok girls    on May 8th, 2017. They were among 276 schoolgirls kidnapped in 2014 from a  secondary school in Chibok, northeast Nigeria. Some 112 still remain in captivity. Photograph: Getty Images

More than 1,000 children taken by Boko Haram since start of Nigerian conflict in 2009

Cambodian prime minister Hun Sen: has ben accused by exiled opposition leader Sam Rainsy of buying fake fans to boost his Facebook profile. Photograph: Adam Dean/The New York Times

Social media company denies it is being misused by ruling government to suppress dissent

Civilians flee the city of Afrin in northern Syria on March 16th, 2018.  A Turkish-led offensive to capture the Kurdish-majority enclave has forced 30,000 civilians from its main city in 24 hours. Photograph:  George Ourfalian/AFP/Getty

Evidence grows of systemic abuse of vast numbers of Syrians going back from Europe

Female genital mutilation: Monica Cheptilak says she was the “chairperson of the knife cutters” in her tribe before FGM was outlawed in Uganda, in 2010. She shows her tool. Photograph: Sally Hayden

The UN wants to stop female genital mutilation by 2030. Locals say they’re changing

Men and children gather in Shagarab refugee camp in eastern Sudan. Photograph: Sally Hayden

For many in Sudan, the dream of escape to Europe is worth extreme risk to life and limb

Nazim  at his temporary home in Mosney refugee centre, Co Meath. Photograph: Sally Hayden

‘The thing that hurts the most is that you can’t provide your kids’ basic needs. It’s not about luxury’

A former millionaire shows us what remains of his shop in Damascus. Now a refugee living near Hanover, in Germany, he attends language classes each day with his wife and children. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

‘Reverse migration’ from Europe is growing. But it’s a dangerous, difficult journey

Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world, with 92 per cent of the population earning under $2 a day

An outbreak of the plague has caused the death of 165 people so far in one of the world’s poorest countries

Displaced people collect water in Muna Garage camp for the displaced on the outskirts of Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Islamist group’s insurgency has left millions displaced in northern Nigeria

Young girls stand by a fence in Muna camp for displaced people in Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Islamist terror group has abducted 10,000 children with some handed over by parents

A Civilian Joint Task Force  member: under-resourced, they seize weapons after victories against Boko Haram.

Accused of abuses and deployment of child soldiers, CJTF volunteers are giving up fight

Zainabeu Hamayaji, 47, who hid her daughter in a ditch in her back garden for nine months while Boko Haram occupied their town. Her husband was killed. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Nigerian woman describes the moment the violent militias arrived in her home town

Recently returned people sit in a camp for the displaced in Gwoza, Borno State, northeast Nigeria. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Former captives describe brutal executions and militants celebrating suicide bombings

A woman cradles her daughter at an MSF clinic for malnourished children in Gwange, Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Conflict sponsored by Islamist group changes from military assaults to guerrilla tactics

Mohammad and a colleague in the falafel restaurant where they work in Zaatari refugee camp. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Tradition and culture bind 80,000 displaced people in Jordan as war enters seventh year

Syrian refugee Mona al-Shamali (52) looks out at the field where she now lives. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Some 1.5m refugees have fled into a poor country seven times smaller than Ireland

A Cuban man gives another a haircut outside a Caritas centre housing migrants in Panama City. Photograph: Sally Hayden

US is still a magnet for the many trying to escape crime and violence at home

Modu and her baby Fatima in the NYSC camp in Maiduguri, Borno State. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Attacks and kidnappings continue, leaving people who fled their homes with a hard choice

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