A man holds a newborn baby as migrants from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and Palestinian territories arrive on a dinghy near the city of Mytilene, after crossing part of the Aegean Sea from Turkey to the island of Lesbos, Greece. Photograph: Elias Marcou/Reuters

Human rights concerns regarding EU agency Frontex have not stopped its budget growing

Erico Workshop Production in Accra, Ghana. Photograph: Sally Hayden

‘Some who have never flown say to their children: “bury me in a plane when I die” ’

Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, on left at lectern, is congratulated after being sworn in as the country’s new president, in Mogadishu. Photograph: Malin Fezehai/The New York Times

Decision made amid growing concerns about power held by Islamist group al-Shabaab

A  Somali MP exits a voting booth in Garowe in Somalia’s semi-autonomous Puntland region back in 2014.  The presidential election takes place  this  Sunday. Photograph: AFP via Getty

Leader will have to grapple with crises such as hunger, drought, inflation and climate

Women queue at a water pump: ‘In some places in Burkina Faso people wait in line for 72 hours to access boreholes,’ says Patrick Youssef, Africa director for the International Committee of the Red Cross. Photograph: Olympia de Maismont/AFP

Climate change, drought and war create food and water shortages, Save the Children says

Ishmael Beah: ‘Returning to Sierra Leone almost feels like looking for my voice again.’ Photograph: Sally Hayden

Ishmael Beah says he wants to change the mindset of his people through reading

The carcass of a goat lies in the sand on the outskirts of Dollow, Somalia. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Country of 16.3m people faces its fourth consecutive failed rainy season

The view from a hotel in the Halane Base Camp, Mogadishu. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Mogadishu Letter: On the other side of the barriers, millions of Somalis live with the daily threat of violence

A woman drinks water at a water distribution point at Muuri camp for internally displaced persons in Baidoa, Somalia. Photograph: Yasuyoshi Chiba/AFP via Getty

World View: Ireland’s emissions 54 times higher than those of Horn of Africa country

Customers shop at a store in Dullow, Somalia, where prices have risen significantly due to the war in Ukraine. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Devastating drought puts 6m people in crisis as food and oil prices rise

Halima Ismael Ibrahim, a single mother of 10  children, left home to search for aid during Somalia’s drought. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

Reluctance to declare a famine as UN says 350,000 children could die by summer

Newly sworn-in legislators take the oath in Mogadishu’s heavily protected airport: Somalia has not had a functioning government since Siad Barre’s socialist regime collapsed in 1991. Photograph: Hasan Ali Elmi/AFP

Al-Qaeda-aligned militants al-Shabaab fire shells at event in crises-stricken country

Africa contains 54 countries and 1.4 billion people. Photograph: Getty Images

Dipo Faloyin’s flawed but important book seeks to show complexity of a vast continent

Under inhumane conditions in Libyan detention centres, hope remains for migrants in search of a better life. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/AFP via Getty Images

The Fourth Time, We Drowned tells the stories of refugees clinging to hope while detained

The bodies of those killed in air strikes on a prison in Saada, Yemen, in January. Photograph: STR/AFP via Getty

Saudi Arabia and the UAE step up bombing in Yemen as the world watches Ukraine

Rehearsals for The Throne, the first live theatre performance in Sierra Leone in decades. Photograph: Sally Hayden

‘Entertainment is such a good way to bring forth change,’ says play’s narrator

Samuel Nsubuga, Ugandan researcher, Marita Mugisha,  Oryem Nyeko, Human Rights Watch researcher, and Carine Kaneza Nantulya, Africa advocacy director of Human Rights Watch, at the launch of the report in Kamapala, Uganda. Photograph: Badru Katumba/AFP/Getty

Report says opposition members and protesters subjected to a range of abuses

A roadside vendor sells oranges  at Asese, Ogun State in southwest Nigeria.  From Nigerian airlines to Malawi bakers, African countries are feeling the pain of Ukraine’s crisis as supply disruptions hike inflation and oil prices push up fuel costs. Photograph: Pius Utomi Expei/AFP/Getty

Rising fuel and wheat prices causing major problems across the continent

Jo Ryan, the chair of Business Ireland Kenya, and Jack O’Regan, a former chair of the Kenya Irish Society. Photo by Sally Hayden

Local business organisations focal point for community’s celebrations in Kenyan capital

Sumy Sadurni runs ahead of Yoweri Museveni’s convoy in central Kampala. She died in a car crash in Uganda last week. Photograph: Sally Hayden.

Nairobi Letter: Sumy Sadurni was a humane capturer of smiles in adversity – and a friend

Last month, the UN said the Horn of Africa is experiencing one of the worst droughts in recent history, with 12-14 million people severely struggling to get food in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. Photograph: Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images

Drought and diversion of international attention to Ukraine crisis also cited as factors

Patoranking, one of Nigeria’s most successful musicians, pictured at his recording studio. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Phenomenal success of Nigerian artists is bringing both opportunities and criticism

Faustane Owusu Acheaw speaks to the meeting in Accra, Ghana about her  son, a final-year pharmacy student still stuck in Kharkiv. Photograph: Sally Hayden

African students make up 20 per cent of Ukraine’s foreign student population

Writers and organisers take to the stage at the annual Lagos Book and Art Festival. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Authors are tackling topics from transgender rights to Islamic extremism, and picking up plenty of awards

Refugee African students, of Eswatini (Swaziland) nationality, manage to pass the Romanian-Ukrainian border crossing point in Siret, northern Romania. Photograph: Robert Ghement/EPA

Black students say they have been stopped from boarding trains, and abused by police

Red Cross members take care of rescued migrants  upon their arrival at La Cebolla port in Arrecife, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain, earlier this week. Photograph: Javier Fuentes/EPA

Sending Frontex to patrol west African coast fails to recognise root of migration

Five people were killed during attacks by Islamic militant group Al-Shabaab in Somali capital Mogadishu on Wednesday. Photograph:  Hassan Ali Elmi/AFP via Getty

Fighters taking over government bases, stealing weapons and vehicles – spokesman

Mabel Sallah, a sales manager for Cobean’z. Photograph: Sally Hayden

The west African nation is celebrating its 18th National Chocolate Day

 People look at amateur football  in Yaounde, Cameroon: “The US government utterly failed Cameroonians with credible asylum claims by sending them back to harm in the country they fled,” says Human Rights Watch. Photograph: Charly Triballeau

Asylum seekers experienced torture, rape and multiple forms of harassment on forced return

Falmata Bulama (30) has been displaced for seven years and her children have nothing to eat. Photograph: Sally Hayden

About 2.4 million forced to leave their homes during 13-year-long war with Boko Haram

Crude oil pollution in the Niger Delta: The oil production ship  Trinity Spirit, capable of processing 22,000 barrels of oil a day, went down on Wednesday.   Photograph: George Osodi/Bloomberg

Tanker was engulfed in flames and sank in Delta region off coast of southern Nigeria

Guinea-Bissau’s president, Umaro Sissoco Embaló delivering a speech. Photograph: Aliu Embaló/AFPTV/AFP via Getty

Attack around government palace on Tuesday lasted hours

Falmata Mustapha earns barely enough money to survive. Photograph: Sally Hayden

The trenches dug all around the Nigerian city of Maiduguri protect it from attack – for now

The EU is equipping and training the Libyan coastguard, as well as using aerial assets to spot refugee boats so they can direct the Libyans to them. Photograph: Italian Navy/AP Photo

Europe claims to care about human rights despite abuses in Libya continuing

Photojournalist Tom Saater, pictured at his home in Lagos. “The city is very fascinating . . . it’s vibrant. There’s so much happening, so many layers. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Tom Saater has a rags to riches story and a unique insight into Nigeria’s biggest city

Malians protest against sanctions  imposed  by the Economic Community of West African States. File photograph: EPA

Collective warning issued after junta plans dropped for scheduled February election

Usman, Danec, Hadiza and Ummate, students at Moduganari Primary and Secondary School in Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

In one of the world’s most dangerous places to attend school, teachers lead lessons and the students come

Vaccination centre in Nairobi. ‘The coming months will be critical in Africa’s efforts to improve vaccination,’ Dr Abdou Salam Gueye of the World Health Organisation says. Photograph: Simon Maina/AFP via Getty Images

WHO says only north and west of continent are still recording an increase in cases

Aisha Mohammed and her two-year-old son, Umar, who is being treated for cholera. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Official figures say treatable disease has killed more people in west African country than Covid-19

Children return to the classroom  at Kitante primary school in Kampala, Uganda, on Monday.  Photograph:  Esther Ruth Mbabazi/The New York Times

Rise in levels of child labour and teenage pregnancies during shutdown, reports say

Damilola Teidi: ‘Years ago, when we kicked off here, of course, the internet wasn’t as good as you have it today.’  Photograph: Sally Hayden

African country’s tech innovators call for international investment and domestic support

Kakwenza Rukirabashaija is being held in a facility in Entebbe, and his lawyer says there is evidence he has been tortured.

Kakwenza Rukirabashaija remains incommunicado despite court orders for his release

Prime minister of Sudan Abdalla Hamdok: ‘I have tried as far as I am able to spare our country the danger of slipping into disaster.’ Photograph:  EPA/Omer Messinger

Thousands marched in nation’s cities in protest at deal prime minister Hamdok had done with military to return to power

In the six weeks to Christmas, rich countries received more boosters than the vaccines delivered to African countries in the year to date. Photograph: Dwayne Senior/Bloomberg

Africa not expected to have 70% Covid-19 vaccination until second half of 2024

Leap of Dance Academy student Precious Duru performs on Okelola Street in Ajangbadi, Lagos. Photograph: Benson Ibeabuchi/AFP via Getty

Young Nigerians dance out onto world stage with pride, confidence and high ambition

By 2050, Africa is expected to have 2.5 billion people – more than a quarter of the world’s total. Photograph:   Jean Marc Mojon/AFP

Edward Paice calls for a sense of humility in discussions around the topic of his new book

Lisa Camara outside the Memory House in Kanifing, The Gambia. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Women-led organisation aims to stop atrocities of dictatorship from reoccurring

The four members of Bright Stars Entertainment. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

In the Gambia, a flourishing comedy scene is used to convey serious messages

Women queue ahead of polls opening in the Gambia’s presidential election. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Preliminary results put incumbent 200,000 votes ahead of nearest rival

Boko Harem is infamous for its attacks on schools, including the April 2016 abduction of hundreds of schoolgirls from Chibok in Nigeria. File photograph: Getty

Closure of Nigerian camps leaving ex-militants struggling to survive and care for dependents

Supporters of the opposition UDP party at a rally on Thursday night, the last day of campaigning. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Frontrunners neck-and-neck in Africa’s smallest mainland country

Fatima, Olivia and Mariatu were easily convinced to travel to the Middle East in the hope of earning money. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Instead of the well-paying jobs they anticipate, many young women are exploited and abused

Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad pose on stage after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize 2018 at Oslo City Town Hall on December 10th, 2018. Photograph: Erik Valestrand/WireImage

Book review: Stories of Congolese women, coming together to support each other

A huge mudslide on the morning of August 14th, 2017, in Freetown, Sierra Leone, killed at least 1,100 people and displaced thousands. Photograph:  Mohamed Saidu Bah/AFP via Getty

As government focuses on Cop26, victims of climate-related tragedy call for shelter and jobs

The site  of the mass burial on Monday  in Sierra Leone of victims of Saturday’s oil tanker explosion. Photograph: Sierra Leone/NDMA

Authorities struggle to cope as relatives of the dead and injured vie for assistance

Bodies of victims of Saturday’s oil tanker explosion are lined up ahead of a mass burial in Waterloo, Freetown, Sierra Leone, on Monday. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Gravediggers work through the day before mass burial of 83 of those killed in Freetown tragedy

The explosion took place on Friday night after a speeding truck collided with a fuel tanker making a turn. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Medics fear staff and supplies shortage as at least 88 people still in city’s hospitals

People gather at the site of Friday night’s explosion in Wellington, eastern Freetown. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Relatives shocked and angry in Sierra Leone’s capital as over 100 killed and homes destroyed

‘Locals hired by international organisations said their jobs were precarious and the duration uncertain.’ File photograph: Getty

Women described being offered jobs such as cooks and cleaners in return for sex

New Ethiopian military recruits gather as the mayor of Addis Ababa, Adanech Abebe, bids a farewell to them in the Ethiopia capital. Photograph: EPA

Tigrayan rebels advance towards capital, as analysts worry whole region could unravel

Patients queue prior to being vaccinated on September 29th, 2021 in Kampala, Uganda. Photograph: Luke Dray/Getty

Some 77 million Africans are fully vaccinated – about 6% of continent’s population

Asylum seekers in the Pournara centre protest over delays in their application process last February. The camp was originally meant to hold arrivals  for three days while they underwent medical checks. File photograph: Getty

‘When you meet a Cypriot the first thing they say is, “I’m not a racist” – but their actions say differently’

Tala Cat Park, Cyprus, is home to hundreds of cats. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Cyprus Letter: Tala Cat Park takes care of nearly 1,000 abandoned and stray cats

Most of the people they rescued had been on rubber boats for 12-14 hours before they were found. Photograph: Valeria Mongelli/AP Photo

Total of 412 people, including more than 100 minors, rescued off Libyan coast

African migrants  on the edge of the desert 170km from  the Libyan capital Tripoli. More than 82,000 men, women and children have been intercepted on the Mediterranean Sea since 2017 and forced back to Libya. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/AFP

Dutch authorities search for one of the ‘most notorious and cruellest’ people smugglers

Police  disperse protesters with tear gas following a demonstration   in Lagos, Nigeria. Photograph:  Sunday Alamba/AP

Bodies of some Nigerians apprehended by security forces end up at medical classes

Migrants rescued off the coast of Khoms, about 120km east of the capital, Tripoli, in February. Photograph: AFP via Getty

Detainees include Eritreans, Somalis and Sudanese who have fled war or dictatorships

Ethiopian National Defence Forces soldiers  during a training session in  Dabat, northeast of the city of Gondar, Ethiopia. Photograph: Amanuel Sileshi/AFP via Getty Images

Evidence of siege in the Ethiopian region with millions facing ‘worst famine in decades’

More than 100m students globally are not going back to education due to the pandemic

Schools remain shut in at least 17 countries, affecting nearly 115 million children

Women and children walked for hours to get to food distribution points, ‘holding on for dear life [and] these were the ones who were healthy enough to make it’.

Unfolding famine in Madagascar reveals shape of things to come due to global warming

Connaught Hospital in central Freetown. It is one of the first places Covid-19 patients go to get help. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

At one hospital in Freetown survival rates fall when a patient’s family cannot afford oxygen

Asad Hussein travelled to the US with a scholarship to study in Princeton University – the first person born in Dadaab refugee camp to do so. Photograph: Princeton University

Book reviews: Michela Wrong’s Do Not Disturb; and Ty McCormick’s Beyond the Sand and Sea

A vaccination centre in Johannesburg, South Africa. Just 18 million Africans are fully vaccinated on a continent of 1.3 billion people.  Photograph: Waldo Swiegers/Bloomberg

Fears are growing that the continent could be facing years of travel restrictions

A family of vendors pose for a photo before sleeping next to their items to be sold at Nakasero Market in Kampala, Uganda. Photograph: Badru Katumba/AFP via Getty

Just 1.2% of the African population are fully vaccinated, according to the WHO

A boy at the Bahrka refugee camp, 10km west of Arbil, in the autonomous Kurdistan region of Iraq. Photograph: Safin Hamed/AFP via Getty

Ireland has resettled 250 refugees since the start of 2020, meanwhile, the crisis worsens

Migrants prepare food at a safe house in the Libyan town of Bani Walid in 2017. Photograph: Mahmud Turkia/AFP via Getty Images

Kidane Zekarias Habtemariam absconded from custody earlier this year

Residents flee Goma, DRC  days in the aftrmath of  Mount Nyiragongo’s eruption.   A new eruption could occur at any moment, according to the region’s  military governor.    Photograph: Moses Sawasawa/AP

Population fear further eruptions from Mount Nyiragongo, Africa’s most active volcano

A healthcare worker administers a jab containing the Pfizer vaccine on a resident of the SAVF Evanna Tehuis old age home near Klerksdorp, South Africa on Wednesday. Photograph: Michele Spatari/AFP via Getty Images

In much of Africa, there are still greater concerns than coronavirus

 Schoolchildren from Ankileisoke Primary School eat lunch offered by a World Food Programme scheme, in the Amboasary-South district of southern Madagascar. Photograph: Rijasolo/AFP via Getty Images

As many as 1.1m people are facing starvation in the south of the island nation

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni (centre) gestures while standing on a car during the inauguration ceremony for his sixth term at Kololo Ceremonial Grounds in Kampala, Uganda on May 12th. Photograph: Badru Katumba/AFP via Getty

Yoweri Museveni says ruling party ‘designed the most elaborate democratic structure’

Dominic Ongwen:  sentenced  to 25 years in jail for war crimes and crimes against humanity.  Photograph: Peter Dejong/ANP/AFP via Getty Images

Ongwen a child-soldier who rose through the ranks in Ugandan rebel group led by Joseph Kony

 Refugees fleeing Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict are transferred by bus from the border reception centre to Um Raquba refugee camp after they crossed the border in Hamdayit, eastern Sudan. Photograph:  Yasuyoshi Chiba

Accounts from Tigray say most perpetrators of rape are Ethiopian or Eritrean troops

Rory Young, co-founder and president of anti-poaching organisation Chengeta. Photograph: Chengeta Wildlife

Rory Young was co-founder of an international anti-poaching organisation

An okada motorbike driver carries a passenger in eastern Freetown, Sierra Leone. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Thousands protest in streets of Freetown sparking sometimes violent confrontations

Ghalia al-Asseh (27), who fled Syria in 2015, and will soon be asked to leave Denmark. Photograph: Charlotte de la Fuente/The New York Times

Returnees have been disappeared or murdered shortly after arriving

Debris from a dinghy, which was supposedly carrying more than 100 migrants, floating in the Mediterranean Sea northeast of the Libyan capital Tripoli on Thursday. Photograph: AP

‘Events show death at sea not an accident,’ says group that takes calls from vessels in distress

This video grab obtained by AFPTV from Tele Tchad shows Mahamat Idriss (37) the son of slain Chadian president Idriss Déby. Photograph: AFPTV from Tele Tchad via Getty

Idriss Déby had been in power since 1990, after ousting the dictator Hissène Habré

A facilitator from the charity Goal leads a training for community mobilisers who will help their areas create action plans focused on what to do if Ebola spreads across the border to Sierra Leone. Photograph: Sally Hayden

West African nation braced for spread of the deadly disease from neighbouring Guinea

The charity confirmed last week that two members of Oxfam DRC staff were suspended as part of an ongoing investigation, set up last November, into allegations of abuses of power. File photograph: Getty

Charity ‘acutely aware’ of duty to survivors, ‘including in supporting them to speak out’

Abdulai Gbla (62) managed to rebuild a shelter with scrap metal and nails. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Burning-down of slum in Sierra Leone leaves 7,000 homeless amid hopes of better rebuild

 Tourists board a boat on the coast of the Banana Islands. Photograph:  Sally Hayden

The tourist island near Freetown is lush and green but needs funds to preserve its heritage

Rescued migrants receive food aid as they disembark  from a Libyan coastguard vessel upon its arrival at the capital Tripoli’s naval base. Photograph:  Mahmud Turkia/AFP/Getty Images

Desperate refugees face uncertain future in poorly-run, unsafe detention centres

A fire broke out in the night of March 24th at Susan’s Bay slum in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Photograph: Sally Hayden

More than 80 injured in capital amids calls for Sierra Leone government to intervene

A woman walks in front of a damaged house which was shelled as federal-aligned forces entered the city, in Wukro, north of Mekele, on March 1st. Photograph: Eduardo Soteras/AFP

Call for more protection of civilians after men dragged off bus and shot by soldiers

Security officers waiting  for the arrival of re-elected Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni on his way back from his country home in Kampala on January 21st, 2021. Photograph:   Getty Images

Families and friends tell of abductions from homes and roadsides by security forces

Sierra Leone’s president Julius Maada Bio receives the Covid-19 vaccine  at the State House in Freetown on Monday. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Sierra Leone’s president urges leaders to persuade their citizens to get Covid-19 jab

People clean the grave of their loved one, a suspected Ebola victim in 2015, at the Disco Hill safe burial site in Margibi County, Liberia. Photograph: Ahmed Jallanzo/ EPA

Genetic analysis suggests transmission occurred through semen

Witnesses Frezgi Ataklti, Salih Mohamed and Mohamed’s mother outside Addis Ababa federal court after they gave evidence against the alleged smuggler Tewelde Goitom. Photograph: Sally Hayden

Suspected human smuggler’s pre-trial escape in Ethiopia distresses victims

Tanzanian president John Pombe Magufuli. Photograph: Michele Spatari/AFP via Getty

John Magufuli is a vaccine sceptic who has urged citizens to put their faith in God

Supporters of opposition candidate Ousmane Sonko call for his release in Dakar on Tuesday. Photograph: John Wessels/AFP

At least eight killed and hundreds injured in country’s worst protests in decades

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