The conservative People's Party (PP) of prime minister Mariano Rajoy has won the most seats in Spain's general election, exit polls suggest, although it will fall short of an absolute majority.
The party will have to rely on others if it is to govern for another four-year term.
The PP is seen winning between 114 and 124 seats in the 350-strong parliament, 52-62 seats short of the 176 seats needed for an absolute majority.
The opposition Socialists are seen coming second with 79-85 seats while newcomer parties anti-austerity Podemos and liberal Ciudadanos would come third and fourth respectively.
Podemos would garner between 70 and 80 seats and Ciudadanos would win between 46 and 50 seats, the exit polls showed.
Spain has been dominated for more than three decades by the ruling Popular Party and the main opposition Socialists, which have alternated running the government.
Mr Rajoy has said he would seek an alliance with politicians outside his Popular Party to prevent a leftist coalition from taking power.