1. January 2019: Register your application with cao.ie
Your first step is to register your intention to seek a CAO college place immediately. If you are interested in getting a place in an Irish university, institute of technology, teacher-training college or private college, offered through the CAO application process, go to cao.ie by January 20th and make an application, paying the €30 charge by credit or debit card. After January 20th and until February 1st, the fee rises to €45.
All the CAO wants at this stage are your personal details, including name, address, phone numbers, disability/specific learning difficulty, country of birth, nationality, email address, payment details, and any post-second level (PLC) educational or other qualifications you have.
When you have done this, you will get your CAO identification number. At this point in your deliberations of your course choices, you may or may not be able to indicate which courses you wish to be considered for next September.
However, you have the freedom to return to your application in May or June, to list or amend your course choices, up until the July 1st final deadline for all such changes. The most comprehensive source of information on courses is on qualifax.ie.
2. February and March: Consider PLC options outside the CAO
The further-education sector has thousands of opportunities for students who may consider a year consolidating their learning in a specific area of knowledge, and developing their academic self-management skills, would better prepare them for successful engagement with a third-level programme.
Further education is also extremely useful for those who may not secure the CAO points for their preferred course choices, but can secure them through the reserved places schemes offered by many third-level institutions.
Colleges of Further Education (FE), which provide these programmes throughout the country, report that many students who defer entering third level directly from school via the CAO, and instead spend a year securing a PLC award, often perform far better than their school peers when they progress to universities and ITs a year later.
If you have a strength in one subject area in school, but may not be academically strong across the full range of Leaving Cert subjects, then deciding to spend a year at PLC level in that subject could be wise. If students get distinctions in all eight PLC modules, they have a good chance of a reserved place in their preferred CAO course the following year. See careersportal.ie for a database of such linked programmes.
PLC programmes also offer training in practical skills for employment in a trade or craft, such as business, hairdressing, beauty, and the fire and ambulance services.
Students interested in local PLC courses need to fill out application forms from individual colleges in the next few months; further education colleges/PLCs are not in the centralised CAO system. Places are offered mostly on a first-come, first-served basis and may be impossible to secure later in the year.
3. UK option drying up for some courses
In some areas, such as nursing, there are unfortunately only a tiny number of CAO places. Up to 2016, most successful nursing PLC students applied for UK programmes which were funded by the UK's National Health Service (NHS) – up to 500 Irish students went annually. However, over the past two academic years, new students on nursing, midwifery and AHP pre-registration courses (which lead to qualification with one of the health professional regulators) in the UK must take out maintenance and tuition loans, rather than getting an NHS grant.
This affects courses leading to professional registration in nursing (all four fields), midwifery, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, podiatry, radiography, dietetics, orthoptics, operating department practice, and prosthetics/orthotics.
This change has impacted hugely on the numbers of students from the Republic seeking nursing/paramedical courses in England through Ucas (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service in the UK) route, as they will now have to pay the full annual tuition fee of at least £9,250 (€10,274).
4. January and May/June: Choosing any college course
You need to apply for any course listed as "restricted" in the CAO handbook by February 1st. All other courses can be added or removed from your application list up to the final change-of-mind deadline on July 1st. If you want to apply for university in the UK, you must finalise your course list with Ucas by January 15th. You must also indicate which PLC courses you are applying for on your initial application to each college. For courses in other EU countries offered through English, closing dates are on course profile pages on eunicas.ie.
Between February 5th and March 1st, any CAO applicant may change a course choice for a fee of €10. If you are a mature student or have applied for a restricted application course, or if you want to apply for a course you have not yet listed and wish to correct or amend your application record, you must report any errors or changes to the CAO by March 1st (fee €10).
Otherwise, you don’t need to make course changes at this stage but can use the change-of-mind facility (May 5th-July 1st) to make any changes, with no charge.
Before the end of May, all applicants receive a statement of application record as a final acknowledgment and to verify all information is accurate. If this does not arrive by June 1st, contact the CAO immediately.
Accompanying this statement will be a change-of-mind form, which you can use up to the closing date, 5.15pm on July 1st, 2019. You may make as many changes as you wish online or on paper.
5. July/August: CAO offers
In the first week of July, the CAO makes more than 6,000 offers to mature applicants (aged over 23) and applicants who accepted and deferred a place last year. A further 2,000-plus places will be offered to mature applicants at the beginning of August. Places in graduate medicine are offered at this stage. These offers arrive at your home address in the middle of summer, so be sure to make arrangements to deal with any offers sent to you.
Offers are also available online but you need to log on to get them and there is no email or text alert.
When the change-of-mind period closes on July 1st, sixth-year students wait for the results of their Leaving Cert on Tuesday, August 13th. When results are out, admissions officers in the third-level institutions inform the CAO of the number of places available on each course.
The CAO then allocates places via computer, based on the results of each qualifying student and the instructions of the admissions officers.
Colleges offer a specific number of places on each course listed with the CAO. Students are offered their highest choice on each list to which their points entitle them. If there are 100 places on offer, the 100 students with the correct entry requirements, who have the highest points, will be offered these places in round one on August 16th.
When the CAO receives the Leaving Cert results on August 13th, each candidate’s choices are examined instantly by the computer, starting with their first choice on each list and working downwards. When their points fall within the number of places offered on a particular course, the computer offers that place and removes all lower-preference courses.
The CAO may later offer a place on a course higher up your list if it becomes available. It is imperative candidates list their choices in the order that they desire them, from one to 10, with one being their most desirable course, and 10 being the least desired.
6. Studying abroad
As the UK loses much of its attraction to Irish students due to the uncertainties concerning Brexit, and higher costs associated with withdrawal of NHS funding to nursing and paramedical programmes, European universities – which offer more than 1,100 undergraduate degrees across all disciplines, taught exclusively through English – are attracting growing numbers of Irish applicants. There are now more than 1,000 young Irish undergraduate students in Dutch universities.
Some of these European universities – which rank in the top 100 worldwide in international ranking – which registered four or five Irish students four years ago, are now admitting 70-100 per year (see eunicas.ie).
As is the norm in continental Europe, fees range from €2,000 in the Netherlands to no fees in Germany and Scandinavian countries. Medical and veterinary programmes in eastern European countries charge fees of €10,000 upwards.
Many of these countries have fewer young people due to their very low birth rates, so third-level education is more easily available. Entry requirements are similar to Irish universities, two H5s and four O6s in most cases, but unlike in Ireland, there are no points requirements.
A student on 300 CAO points could well secure entry to a European university programme to study, for example, physiotherapy or psychology – courses which would require at least 500 points in Ireland. But given that securing a place in a European university is relatively easy compared to an Irish one, failure or drop-out rates after first year are high, so after securing your place, getting your first-year exams and completing the course over three to four years is another challenge.