Indoor dining has partially reopened in most of Europe in recent weeks. Customers show proof of vaccination or a negative test on entry to restaurants and bars in many countries, including Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, parts of Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and Slovenia.
Restrictions on pubs are often tougher than on restaurants, with indoor service banned for establishments that don’t serve food in Croatia and Romania.
There are often time limits on serving alcohol, such as a mandatory 10pm last call in Denmark and Sweden. Several countries set up their own national systems to facilitate greater access to catering and other services for vaccinated people, echoing the “green pass” system that was pioneered by Israel in the spring.
As of this week, 20 countries are already issuing EU digital Covid-19 passes to their residents. This system is designed to facilitate travel, but can be used generally as proof of vaccination, a negative test, or recovery from Covid-19.
Catering restrictions around the EU:
Austria: Open, but guests must show proof of vaccination, a negative test, or certificate of recovery from Covid-19. This is also required for theatres, personal grooming, hotels, sports facilities etc. Restaurant opening hours are limited, and tables restricted to 8 people until July 1st.
Belgium: Hospitality is open, tables are limited to 8, and closure is mandatory by 1am. The government has said that CO2 monitors will be mandatory in all indoor venues, so customers can see whether the space is adequately ventilated.
Bulgaria: Catering is allowed up until 11pm at maximum 50 per cent capacity.
Croatia: Indoor dining is allowed, but establishments that do not serve food may only serve outdoors and no alcohol is served after 11pm. Nightclubs are closed.
Cyprus: Customers require a CoronaPass, or SafePass, certifying they are vaccinated, tested negative, or recovered from Covid-19.
Czechia: Distancing, masks, and a maximum of four people per table.
Denmark: "Corona passport" required for indoor dining. No alcohol after 10pm and restaurants, cafes and bars must close at midnight. Night life such as clubs remain closed.*
Estonia: Indoor occupancy limited to 50 per cent, doors closed at midnight.
Finland: Sanitary measures apply. An occupancy limit and a midnight curfew for alcohol is in place in the region of Uusimaa.
France: Maximum of 50 per cent maximum capacity inside and table service only.
Germany: Restrictions vary from state to state. Typically, customers must present a negative test result or proof of vaccination to be admitted to indoor catering.
Greece: Cafes and restaurants with a separate entry and exit, and that are well ventilated, may be permitted to open indoor service from July 1st. The night time curfew is expected to be loosened to 1.30am.
Hungary: Restaurants are open, and all services can be used by customers who show a vaccination certificate.
Italy: Regions are classified according to Covid-19 infection levels, with differing local restrictions accordingly (including curfews, ban on travel between regions, the suspension of in-person catering service, etc). Currently, low infection rates mean all regions are "white", and therefore have no restrictions on dining.
Latvia: Vaccinated people may dine indoors, and visit gyms, cinemas and theatres. Outdoor dining is open for all with limits of two households and four adults per table, two metres between tables, and facemasks.
Lithuania: People with a certificate showing vaccination may dine indoors and access other entertainment venues. Otherwise, service is takeaway or outdoor-only.
Luxembourg: People with a vaccination certificate may access indoor dining without restrictions until 1am. Otherwise, facemasks, distancing, and limits on diner numbers apply.
Malta: Restaurants and bars are open with limits of six people per table.
Netherlands: Most restrictions have been lifted, as long as guests are kept 1.5 metres apart. Businesses that check for proof of vaccination may open to full capacity.
Poland: Restaurants may open to 75 per cent capacity with 1.5 metres distance or screens between tables.
Portugal: Plans to further ease restrictions were cancelled this week due to rising Covid-19 rates. Restaurants and cafes may open until midnight with occupant limits; stricter rules govern regions with higher infection rates.
Romania: Bars, clubs, and discos are prohibited indoors and private parties are banned. Restaurants may serve indoors up to 50 per cent capacity until 10.00pm, with two metres distance between tables and a maximum of six people per table. Tougher restrictions apply for regions with higher infection rates.
Slovakia: Indoor dining open subject to precautions including facemasks.
Slovenia: Bars and restaurants are open to over-18s who are vaccinated, test negative, or have recovered from Covid-19, with a mandatory 3 metres between tables.
Spain: Variation between regions, but indoor venues are generally limited to 50 per cent capacity with a maximum of six people per table.
Sweden: Indoor catering is open until 10.30pm, with no alcohol after 10pm, a maximum of four people per table, and table service only. Guests must also keep their distance.
*This article was amendened on June 29th to reflect a change in Danish rules