Marriage referendum – countdown to polling day

 

Sir, – Over recent weeks Bruce Arnold has been in print and on broadcast media opposing the marriage equality referendum. This appeared to spring initially from his birth outside marriage into an unhappy family in Croydon in the 1930s. Moreover, despite not having a drop of Irish blood, not a word of Irish and no legal training, he publicly challenged the Irish wording of the referendum. I decided to ignore his contributions.

However I was astonished yesterday morning to hear him say on radio that the grim picture painted of the living conditions of gay people was a fiction. He indicated that gay people in the ’40s, ’50s, and ’60s were happy, well-adjusted people without a bother in the world, celebrated and loved like the English theatricals Michael Mac Liammóir and Hilton Edwards. (Indeed I remember RTÉ broadcasting a moving appeal by Mac Liammóir for a change in the law shortly before his death). That law incidentally was an import to Ireland from Bruce Arnold’s home country England.

As someone who lived through that period and founded the first gay organisations I would like to comment. Gay people of my vintage woke up in their early teens to the appalling prospect of prison, church condemnation and social ostracism for something over which they had no control. I personally was a witness to gay people being harassed, sacked, beaten, imprisoned and subject to forced ECT as well as confinement in mental hospitals. I can assure Mr Arnold that these people were far from happy citizens. Naturally I will be voting Yes. – Yours, etc,

Senator DAVID NORRIS,

Leinster House,

Dublin 2.

Sir, – We are psychiatrists practising in Ireland. A fundamental tenet of medical care is the acceptance of patients as they are and for who they are. From a psychiatric point of view, there is no medical or psychiatric pathology related to same-sex preferences. Nor is there any abnormality related to same-sex relationships. Discrimination, however, is harmful to mental health. Therefore, in the interests of promoting happiness and better mental health, we intend to vote Yes for the marriage referendum. – Yours, etc,

Dr BRENDAN

McCORMACK,

Dr JOHN TOBIN,

Dr HELEN KEELEY,

Dr EVAN YACOUB,

Dr SIOBHAN MacHALE,

Dr MIKE SCULLY,

Dr WILLIAM FLANNERY,

Dr ANITA AMBIKAPATHY,

Dr STEPHEN MONKS,

Dr MIA McLAUGHLIN,

Dr GEAROID MOYNIHAN,

Dr ROISIN PLUNKETT,

Prof HARRY KENNEDY,

Dublin 2.

Sir, – As groups representing Church of Ireland members throughout Ireland we would encourage all eligible members of the church to vote in the referendum on the 34th Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill tomorrow.

We would ask that church members remain mindful of the biblical teaching about marriage as the Church of Ireland has received it, and continues to express it in the Book of Common Prayer and in canon 31. Most recently this teaching has been affirmed in the “Motion on Human Sexuality in the Context of Christian Belief” passed by General Synod in 2012: “The Church of Ireland affirms, according to our Lord’s teaching, that marriage is in its purpose a union permanent and lifelong, for better or worse, till death do them part, of one man with one woman, to the exclusion of all others on either side, for the procreation and nurture of children, for the hallowing and right direction of the natural instincts and affections, and for the mutual society, help and comfort which the one ought to have of the other, both in prosperity and adversity.” – Yours, etc,

Rev JOANNE

MEGARRELL,

Church of Ireland

Evangelical Fellowship;

Archdeacon

DAVID McCLAY,

New Wine Ireland;

Rev TIM ANDERSON,

Reform Ireland;

Rev WILLIAM PRESS,

Evangelical Fellowship

of Irish Clergy,

Dublin 2.

A chara, – As someone who believes in equal rights and equal access for all people without distinction, and the fair distribution of wealth and resources, my values and opinions are not often represented in the dominant political discourse in Ireland. So let’s make the most of this, while we have it. Let’s become the first country to legalise same sex marriage through a public vote. Vote Yes. Let’s make ourselves proud tomorrow. – Is mise,

AMY ANDERSON,

Dublin 3.

Sir, – Mrs Mary McAleese accuses the Irish Catholic bishops of omitting the church’s teaching on sexual ethics in their statements regarding the marriage referendum. In fact, it is Mary herself, along with all the other Catholics who have called for a Yes vote, who make the most striking omission. They all totally ignore the teaching of Jesus on marriage (see Mark 10: 1-12, especially verses 6-8).

Jesus clearly taught that God’s making us male and female was at the foundation of marriage as a natural reality. He was not talking exclusively about the sacrament (which his original audience didn’t have anyway); he spoke of a universal truth grounded in God’s creation.

Do Mrs McAleese and others consider Jesus to have taught injustice and discrimination in his highlighting the distinction between the two sexes as the cornerstone of marriage? Do they consider the church to be acting in an unfair and discriminatory manner in treating opposite-sex and same-sex couples differently?

A Yes vote would not change this, of course, but it would enshrine in our Constitution and law a “sameness” equality principle in direct opposition to biblical teaching and church practice recognising difference. I can understand secularists supporting this, but Catholics? – Yours, etc,

Dr JOHN MURRAY,

Iona Institute,

Dublin 2.

Sir, – If the Yes campaign is so perturbed by the notion of civil partnership as a second-class attachment because it has no constitutional protection, then why hasn’t the Government put that much less contentious referendum before the people instead of trying to undermine marriage?– Yours, etc,

MARK DALY,

Mount Merrion,

Co Dublin.

Sir, – Parental rights in education and freedoms of conscience and religion may be impacted by this amendment. The conviction this week in Belfast of a family-run Christian bakery for refusing to make a cake topping with a political slogan “Support Gay Marriage” to which they conscientiously objected should give every citizen pause for thought.

If this amendment is passed there are two undisputed consequences, both identified by the Referendum Commission.

First, lawfully differentiating between opposite-sex and same-sex married couples would be, as the commission put it, “not impossible, but difficult to imagine”.

In concrete terms, this means it would be difficult to recognise in Irish law the special place of a mother and father in a child’s life, for example when legislating around surrogacy, assisted reproduction and adoption.

Second, two men or two women, if married, would enjoy a constitutional right to procreate.

To date, the Irish courts have never been asked to consider what this right means in the case of a same-sex couple. It seems that a court in the future could be faced with at least two choices. It could define the right to procreate narrowly.

Alternatively, it could interpret it expansively to include a constitutionally protected freedom to use donor-assisted reproduction and/or surrogacy.

We would be concerned if an expansive interpretation by the courts of this amendment conferred constitutional protection on such practices which cut the natural ties between a child and his or her biological mother or father for the sake of adult reproductive choice.

It is not necessary to redefine marriage in order to give constitutional recognition to same-sex unions or constitutional status to the comprehensive legal entitlements already available in civil partnership. Such protection could be enshrined in the Constitution, such as in Article 40 which deals with personal rights and equality. – Yours, etc,

RONNIE ROBINS, SC

ERWAN MILL-ARDEN, SC

MICHAEL COUNIHAN, SC

SHANE MURPHY, SC

PATRICK TREACY, SC

Dublin 7.

Sir, – We are an independent group of psychologists in Ireland. From a psychological point of view same-sex preference is part of the spectrum of human sexuality and is in no way abnormal or pathological. Same-sex couples are similar to heterosexual couples in many regards. All of the available research shows that children of same-sex couples are similar to children of heterosexual couples. Inequality and discrimination, however, are damaging to mental health. It is for these reasons that we intend to vote Yes in the marriage referendum. – Yours, etc,

Prof ALAN CARR,

Dr SHEILA KISSANE,

Prof BRIAN HUGHES,

Dr NICOLA LALLY,

Dr JOHN BOGUE,

Prof GARY DONOHOE,

Dr GARY O’REILLY,

Dr MAEVE KENNY

on behalf 316 independent Irish Psychologists

Sir, – As educators and academics in primary, secondary and third-level institutions, we wish to emphatically support a Yes vote on May 22nd.

Some of our colleagues have declared for a No vote. They have done so with the view that their personal beliefs will no longer be appropriate for teaching. Others have gone further suggesting this would debar them from teaching. We disagree with this pessimistic judgment.

If Ireland votes to extend the privileges and responsibilities of marriage to gay and lesbian citizens, schools will not be forced to change how sex education is taught or the definition of marriage as defined by their religious ethos.

Bunreacht na hÉireann affords our colleagues the rights to freedom of expression and freedom of religious practice. It is these freedoms that allow schools to be governed by a religious ethos. This will not change.

There are quite a few differences between the teaching of the Catholic Church on the sacrament of marriage and legally enshrined civil marriage in Ireland. Children already learn that these two types of marriage exist and are governed by their own rules. We respectfully ask parents and guardians to reflect on this.

As educators our first duty is to make our pupils and students feel included, recognised and validated. Teachers are increasingly aware that the issue of divorce and non-traditional family structures have to be discussed sensitively in the classroom.

The real fact is if we vote Yes schools with a religious ethos will continue to have the right to discriminate against teachers whose personal lives are deemed to be contrary to that ethos.

Teachers who are divorced, in a pre-marital cohabiting relationship or, most pertinently, gay, are all at risk.

These teachers and our LGBT students are being silenced and rendered invisible in our schools.

Our third-level colleagues equally should rest assured that their protected academic freedom to hold a range of ethical and cultural positions is not under threat.

They can continue to espouse their views, but as in academic life in general, such views will be open to contestation and will need to be rationally defended.

Our schools and third-level institutions are places of learning, respect and diversity. Schools are not places for waging ideological battles backed up with no evidence.

The only victims will be the children whose families are deemed unworthy or wrong in the eyes of their educators. – Yours, etc,

STEVEN CONLON,

School of Communications,

DCU, Dublin 9;

ANNETTE DOLAN,

Deputy General Secretary,

Teachers’ Union of Ireland,

Dublin 6 , and

Mr Niall Callan, Primary school teacher and Spokesperson for Teachers for Marriage Equality, Co. Dublin. Dr. Anne Lodge, Principal, The Church of Ireland College of Education. Dr. Mary Gannon, Educational Consultant, Associate of the CDETB Curriculum Development Unit. Damian McGrath, Retired primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Pól Mag Lionáin, Príomhoide Gaelscoil Riabhach, Co. na Gaillimhe Niamh Cooke, Primary school teacher, Co. Limerick. Ben Dundon, Retired primary school Principal, Co. Dublin. John McElligott, Retired primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Fionnuala Ní Bhaoill, Priomhoide Tánaisteach, Co. Baile Átha Cliath. Jeremiah Ryan, Primary school teacher, Co. Cork. Séamus Conboy, Primary school Principal, Co. Dublin. Cathal Ó Riada, Príomhoide Scoil Cúil Aodha, Co. Chorcaí. Suzie Faulkner, Primary school teacher, Co. Carlow. Simon Lewis, Primary school Principal, Co. Carlow. Kevin Kennedy, Primary school Principal, Co. Kilkenny. Ciara Fagan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Eileen Gamble, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Sinéad Ahern, Primary school Principal, Co. Laois. Anne Marie Lillis, Primary school teacher. Caroline Willoughby, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Jan Kennedy, Primary school Deputy Principal, Co. Dublin. Carolyn Good, Primary school Principal, Co. Wexford. Gearóid McCauley, Primary school teacher, Co. Wexford. Triona Morrison, Primary school Principal, Co. Tipperary. Dion Ó Caoimh, Múinteoir bunscoile, Co. Chill Dara. Mary Rockett, Primary school Deputy Principal, Co. Clare. Triona Murphy, Retired Primary school Deputy Principal, Co. Dublin. Triona O’Malley, Primary school Deputy Principal, Co. Mayo. Leon McAleenan, Primary school Assistant Principal, Co. Dublin. Diarmuid Fitzgerald, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Andrew Whelan, Primary school teacher, Co. Meath. Cecelia Gavigan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Dr. Fintan McCutcheon, Teacher and academic, Co. Dublin. Hazel Ní Phiogóid, Primary school teacher, Co. Galway. Denis Moynihan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Michéal Kilcrann, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Conchobar Ó Laoghaire, Múinteoir bunscoile, Co. Ceatharlach. Meadhbh Murphy, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. John O’Brien, Primary school teacher, Castleknock, Co. Dublin. Niamh Ní Dhubhghall, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Margaret Murphy, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Hazel Buckley, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Keith Breathnach, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Paul O’Callaghan, Primary school teacher, Co. Limerick. Jennifer Watson, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Claire Kirwan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Amy Lawlor, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Colleen Farrell, Primary school teacher, Co. Cork. Deirdre Lawless, Primary school teacher, Co. Galway. Aideen Butler, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Mícheál Kilcrann B.Ed M.Ed. Primary Teacher, Co. Dublin Conor Langton, Primary school teacher, Co. Waterford. Ciara Smith, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Jacinta Hayes, Primary school teacher, Co. Wexford. Rachael Smith, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Joelle Hendrick, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Amanda Manning, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Hilary McLoughlin, Primary school teacher, Co. Kildare. Ruth Mullins, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Ciara Cunningham, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Sarah Keyes, Primary school teacher, Co. Limerick. Colm O Riain, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Carol Ann Rooney, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Sinéad Herlihy, Primary school teacher, Co. Cork. Rachel Burke, Primary school teacher, Co. Kildare. Gearoid Kelleher, Primary school teacher, Co.Cork. Eleanor Barry, Primary school teacher, Co. Wexford. Kathy Kane, Primary school teacher, Co. Wexford. Patrick Patten, Primary school teacher, Co Mayo. Carmel Orme, Primary school teacher, Co. Mayo. Elaine Murren. Primary school teacher, Co. Roscommon. Katy Roche, Primary school teacher, Co. Kildare. Mairead Connolly, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Yvonne Mangan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Aisling Coogan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Siobhán Odumosu, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Denis J. Carroll, Primary school teacher, Co. Mayo. Dan McGee, Primary school teacher, Co. Louth. Susan D’Arcy, Primary school teacher, Co. Waterford. Kathy Quinn, Primary school teacher, Co. Mayo. Rachel Lavelle, Primary school teacher, Co. Galway. Gregor Kerr, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Tommy Commins, Primary school teacher, Co. Mayo. Elaine Burns, Primary school teacher, Co. Kildare, Sarah Spicer, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Annette Bradley, Primary school teacher, Co. Donegal. Trudi McEvoy, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Philip O’Donnell, Primary school teacher, Co. Donegal. Aoife Nic Sheáin, Múinteoir bunscoile, Co. Dún na nGall. Fíona Ó Fiaich, Múinteoir bunscoile, Co. Baile Átha Cliath. Jean Ní Chárthaigh, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Alice O’Donnell, Primary school teacher, Co. Wicklow. John Cryan, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Clodagh Robinson, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Natalie Swain, Primary school teacher, Co. Kilkenny. Ciara Gallagher, Primary school teacher, Co. Donegal. Malachaí Mac Amhlaoibh, Primary school teacher, Co. Cork. Anne Marie Roche, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Sue Molloy, Primary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Miriam Golding, Special Needs Assistant, Co. Dublin. Celine Gorman, Special Needs Assistant, Co. Dublin. Louise Keelan, Special Needs Assistant, Co. Dublin. Anna Wright, Special Needs Assistant, Co. Dublin. Dr. Richard Hayes, Post-primary teacher, Co. Limerick. Amy Burns, Secondary school teacher, Co. Waterford. Fintan O’Mahony, Secondary school teacher, Co. Tipperary. Jennifer Dalton, Secondary school teacher, Co. Kildare. Sean Murphy, Secondary school teacher, Co. Clare. Andrea O’Gorman, Secondary school teacher, Co. Cavan. Jennifer Dunne, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Sandra Nagle, Secondary school teacher, Co. Meath. Evelyn O’Connor, Secondary school teacher, Co. Mayo. Órla Smith, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin Anna Hudson, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Kate O’Byrne, Secondary school teacher, Co. Louth. Martina Horan, Secondary school teacher, Co. Laois. Órla O’Connor, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Bryan Gallagher, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Lucy Ní Mhuineog, Secondary school teacher, Co. Galway. Emma McGrath, Secondary school teacher, Co. Tipperary. Martin Moloney, Secondary school teacher, Co. Clare. Kevin Bannon, Secondary school teacher, Co. Westmeath. Dominick Donnelly, Secondary school teacher, Co. Cork. Angeline Westnott, Secondary school teacher, Co. Waterford. Amy King, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Lucy Gallagher, Secondary school teacher, Co. Sligo. Dympna Cremin, Secondary school teacher, Co. Limerick. Brian McAuliffe, Secondary school teacher, Co. Cork. Ruth Lyons, Secondary school teacher, Co. Dublin. Niamh Walsh, Secondary school teacher, Co. Cork. Mairéad Young, Secondary school teacher, Co. Wexford. Anthony Duggan, Class Teacher, Midleton CBS, Co. Cork. Elaine Frances Dold, Graduate Student Teacher (GST). Leo Kilroy, School Inspector, Co. Wicklow. Sheila Biggs, Guidance Counsellor, Co. Dublin Gwen Redmond, Further Education, Co. Dublin. Jan Carroll, Further Education, Co. Meath. Patricia Loughman, Retired vocational teacher, Co. Dublin. Marian McCormack, Adult Literacy Tutor at CDETB, Crumlin College, Co. Dublin. Helen O’Mahony, Ballyfermot College of Further Education. Carrie Archer, Teacher Further Education, City of Dublin ETB Josephine O’Halloran, Third level teacher, Co. Cork. Dr Martin Marjoram, Lecturer in Mathematics, Institute of Technology Tallaght and Member of TUI Executive Committee. Prof. Ronit Lentin, Dept. of Sociology, Trinity College Dublin Prof. Kevin Rafter, DCU Prof. John Flood, UCD School of Law, UCD Prof. Des Bell, Head of Academic Affairs, NCAD Prof. Fiona de Londras, Professor of Law, Durham University Prof. Danielle Clarke, School of English, Drama and Film, UCD Prof. Anthony Staines, School of Nursing and Human Sciences, DCU Prof. Lionel Pilkington, School of Humanities, NUI Galway Prof. Farrel Corcoran, Emeritus Professor of Communication, DCU Prof. Mark Keane, Chair of Computer Science, UCD Prof. Nicholas Daly, School of English at UCD Prof. Maria Pramaggiore, Head of Media Studies, Faculty of Arts, Celtic Studies & Philosophy, Maynooth University Prof. Gerardine Meaney, UCD Humanities Institute, UCD Prof. Gerry Kearns, Professor of Human Geography, Maynooth University Prof. Michael Cronin MRIA, Centre for Translation and Textual Studies, DCU Prof. Alex Davis, School of English, UCC Prof. Margot Backus, Fulbright Scholar of Anglophone Irish Literature, School of English and the Seamus Heaney Poetry Centre, Queen’s University Belfast. Prof. Eamonn Wall, University of Missouri-St. Louis Prof. Clare Carroll, Professor, Comparative Literature, Queens College and The Graduate Center, CUNY. Prof. Marie-Louise Coolahan, English/School of Humanities, NUI Galway Prof. Ferdinand von Prondzynski, Principal, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen Dr. Liam Thornton, School of Law, UCD Dr. Eoin Daly, School of Law, NUI Galway Dr. Roderic O’Gorman, Lecturer, School of Law & Government, DCU Dr. Fergus Ryan, Lecturer in Law, Maynooth University Dr. Mark Coen, UCD School of Law, UCD Ms. Shivaun Quinlivan, Law Lecturer, NUI Galway Ms. Ursula Connolly, Lecturer in Law, NUI Galway Helen O’Connor, Assistant Lecturer, Law Department, UCC Dr. Claire McCann, Senior Lecturer in Law, Northumbria University Ursula Barry, Senior Lecturer, Deputy Head, School of Social Justice, UCD Dr. Conor McCabe, Equality Studies, School of Social Justice, UCD Prof. Dorothy Kenny, Associate Professor, School of Applied Language and Intercultural Studies, DCU Dr. Heather Ingman, Adjunct Professor, Trinity College, Dublin Dr. Carmen Kuhling, Senior Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Limerick Dr. Aphra Kerr, Senior Lecturer in Sociology, Maynooth University Dr. Paul Ryan, Lecturer, Social Sciences, Maynooth University Dr. Catriona O’Toole, Reg. Psychol., Ps.S.I.; C Psychol BPS, Lecturer and Course Director of the M.Litt and PhD programmes, Maynooth University Dr. Pamela Hussey, Lecturer, Nursing and Human Sciences, DCU Dr. Pamela Hussey, Lecturer in Nursing / Health Informatics, DCU Dr. Mark Philbin, Programme Co-ordinator: BSc Health & Society, School of Nursing & Human Sciences, DCU Dr. Geraldine Moane, Senior Lecturer, School of Psychology, UCD Angela Rickard, Lecturer, Department of Education, Maynooth University. Dr. Nessa Cronin, Lecturer, Centre for Irish Studies, NUI Galway Dr. Gwen Boyle, Instructor, CTYI, DCU Sarah Donovan, Resource Worker/Tutor, Ballincollig Adult Education Centre, Cork Education & Training Board Dr. Áine Phillips, Head of Sculpture, Burren College of Art County Clare Dr. Cian O’ Callaghan, Lecturer in Geography, Department of Geography, Maynooth University Dr. Gavan Titley, Lecturer, Dept of Media Studies, Maynooth University. Dr. James O’Higgins Norman, Chair of Graduate Teacher Education, School of Education Studies, DCU Dr. Stephen Kinsella, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Limerick Dr. Stephanie Rains, Lecturer, Department of Media Studies, Maynooth University Dr. Mel Duffy, Lecturer Sociology and Sexuality Studies, DCU Dr. Mary McAuliffe, UCD Women’s Studies Ailbhe Smyth, Senior Lecturer (retired), UCD Dr. Paul Michael Garrett, School of Political Science & Sociology, NUI Galway Dr. Katherine O’Donnell, UCD Dr. Clare Hayes-Brady, School of English, Drama and Film, UCD Dr. Jorie Lagerwey, Lecturer, School of English, Drama & Film, UCD Dr. Catríona Clutterbuck, Lecturer, School of English, Drama & Film, UCD Dr. Eamonn Jordan, Senior Lecturer, School of English, Drama & Film, UCD Dr. Rebecca Anne Barr, Lecturer in English, NUI Galway Dr Alan Gibbs, Lecturer, School of English, UCC Dr. Tina O’Toole, Lecturer in English, School of Culture and Communication, University of Limerick Dr. Denis Condon, Lecturer, School of English, Media and Theatre Studies, Maynooth University Dr. Muireann O’Cinneide, Lecturer in English, NUI Galway Anne Etienne, Lecturer, School of English, UCC Dr. Anne Mulhall, Lecturer, School of English, Drama & Film, UCD Garret O’Malley, Doctoral Researcher, English Department, NUI Galway Dr Gail McConnell, Lecturer in English, Queen’s University Belfast Claire M. Dunne, Lecturer in Education, Marino Institute of Education Dr. Grace O’ Grady, Lecturer in Education and Programme Director MEd/PGD School Guidance Counselling, Maynooth University Dr. Audrey Bryan, Lecturer in Education and Human Development (Sociology), St. Patrick’s College, Drumcondra DCU Dr. Declan Fahie, School of Education, UCD. Dr. Karl Kitching, Lecturer, School of Education, UCC Dr. Rory Mc Daid, Lecturer in Education, Marino Institute of Education. Dr. Bernie Grummell, Lecturer, Dept of Adult and Community Education, Maynooth University Anthony Malone, Lecturer, Department of Education, Maynooth University Majella Dempsey, Course Leader BSc Science Education, Maynooth University Dr. Mark Glynn, Head of Teaching Enhancement, DCU Dr. J. P. Byrne, Scientific Researcher Dr. Aislinn O’Donnell, Lecturer in Philosophy of Education, Mary Immaculate College (University of Limerick) Dr. Maggie Feeley, Independent scholar, Co. Dublin. Dr. Mary Phelan, Programme Chair in School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies, DCU Dr. Vera Sheridan, School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies, DCU Dr. Veronica Crosbie Lecturer in ESOL & Intercultural Studies, DCU Dr. Helen Ringrow, Lecturer, School of Languages and Area Studies, University of Portsmouth, Dr. Una Mannion, Lecturer, IT Sligo Paddy Anderson Lecturer in Community Development. Dr. Sarah-Anne Buckey, Lecturer in History, NUI Galway Dr. Val Nolan, Lecturer, Department of English, NUI Galway. Dr. Mark O’Brien, Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Dr. Debbie Ging, Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Dr. Eugenia Siapera, Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Dr. Liz Greene, Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Dr. Padraig Murphy, Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Mr. Donal Mulligan, Associate Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Mr. Karl Grimes, Lecturer, School of Communications, DCU Dr. Jeneen Naji, Department of Media Studies, Maynooth University Dr. Jeannine Woods, Roinn na Gaeilge, Nui Galway Dr. Julie Dunne, Lecturer in Medicinal and Food Chemistry, Dublin Institute of Technology. Dr. Kylie Jarrett, Lecturer, Department of Media Studies, Maynooth University Dr. Piaras Mac Éinrí, Lecturer in Migration Studies, Department of Geography, UCC Maggie Ronayne, Lecturer in Archaeology, School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway. John O’Sullivan, Lecturer, Dublin International Study Centre Seamus White, Lecturer, Dublin Business School Caroline O’Sullivan, Senior Lecturer, School of Informatics and Creative Arts, Dundalk Institute of Technology Mr. Brendan Ryan, Lecturer (retired) CIT Dr. Karen E. Till, Senior Lecturer, Dept. go Geography, Maynooth University Dr. Maeve Houlihan, Senior Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour, UCD Mr Jean-Philippe Imbert, Lecturer in Comparative Literature and Sexuality Studies, DCU Eoin Carroll, Programme Director in Faculty of Computing, Griffith College Dublin Mr Glenn Doyle, Lecturer, School of Informatics and Creative Arts, Dundalk Institute of Technology Caroline Earley, Lecturer in Dept. of Humanities, Institute of Technology, Tallaght Ms Ciara Graham, Lecturer of Business, Institute of Technology, Tallaght. Mr Harry Browne, Lecturer, School of Media, Dublin Institute of Technology Glenn Mehta, Lecturer, Institute of Technology, Tallaght Mr Pedro Fernandez, Catalan Language & Culture Lecturer, School of Languages and Cultures, UCC Emma Grey, Doctoral Researcher, School of Language & Literature, University of Aberdeen Dr Ben Clarke, Lecturer in English Language and Linguistics, School of Languages and Area Studies, University of Portsmouth, UK Dr. Sean Farrell, Department of History, Northern Illinois University Jennifer Sizer, Teaching Fellow, School of Languages and Area Studies, University of Portsmouth. Dr. Noreen Giffney, Lecturer in Psychoanalytic Studies, Department of Psychosocial Studies, Birkbeck, University of London Rionnagh Sheridan, Doctoral Candidate, School of English, Queen’s University Belfast Mr Ciarán O’ Driscoll, PhD Candidate, School of Politics and International Relations, UCD Mr James Cummins, PhD candidate, School of English, UCC Mr Brendan McLoughlin, PhD Candidate, School of English, Queen’s University Belfast Mr Kieran Walsh, PhD Candidate, School of Pharmacy, UCC Donna Maria Alexander, PhD Graduate/Tutor, UCC Ann Hegarty, PhD candidate, Co. Dublin Alison Killilea, PhD Candidate, UCC Patricia O Connor, PhD Researcher, Old English and Digital Humanities, UCC Orla Egan, PhD Candidate and Tutor, UCC. Dr Perry Share, Head of School of Business and Social Sciences, IT Sligo