“Completing EMU will require some form of fiscal integration in the end.”

Policymaking is generally a messy business. Those in the thick of it know that it rarely starts from a clean slate but is bound by past decisions. Tho(...)

French president Emmanuel Macron. “This is the first time that a head of state has spoken to all the peoples of Europe in their languages,” says an adviser of Mr Macron’s open lettter. Photograph: Gonzalo Fuentes/Reuters

Emmanuel Macron’s open letter to the citizens of the European Union is an urgent appeal for mobilisation against the threats of what the French presid(...)

John Major in Dublin. Photograph: Tom Honan

Contrariness was the hallmark of the UK’s sometimes fractious relationship with the EU long before the Brexit vote. And it was never something for whi(...)

French finance minister Bruno Le Maire proposed a compromise to secure agreement for an EU-wide digital sales tax. Photograph: Eric Piermont/AFP/Getty Images

Germany’s finance minister, Olaf Scholz, had long conveyed reservations about the European Commission’s proposed directive for a digital sales tax (DS(...)

Minister for Finance Paschal Donohoe: Ireland is among member states calling for reforms to the ESM, the EU’s loan bailout fund. Photograph: Tom Honan

The EU’s emergency bailout loan vehicle, the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), should be given new powers to vet potential loan applicants’ budget p(...)

France’s president Emmanuel Macron. Photograph: Jasper Juinen/Bloomberg

The recent Great Recession had very serious implications for the public finances of the euro area. The combined government deficits of the euro area s(...)

German chancellor Angela Merkel greets French president Emmanuel Macron on Tuesday during German-French government consultations near Gransee in Germany. Photograph: Michele Tantussi/Getty Images

The Republic has joined 11 other euro-zone countries in signing a joint email urging a wide-ranging discussion among European Union leaders next week (...)

Minister for Finance  Paschal Donohoe, who was in Brussels on Monday for a meeting of the eurogroup. Photograph: Dara Mac Dónaill

Eurogroup ministers approved the third review of Greece’s bailout programme on Monday, putting the country on course to exit its bailout in June. Ec(...)

Michelle Walsh at Lake Alster in Hamburg:  ‘Amidst all the industry and the ships and the high-rise buildings, there are beach clubs and river side restaurants and concerts that soften this industrial vista.’

After two years of perennial sunshine, sticky humidity and negotiating my way through the cultural labyrinth that is Africa, I decided it was time for(...)

 King Hanvery VIII’s determination to marry Anne Boleyn and the Pope’s refusal to endorse the divorce which would have made it possible was more the occasion than the cause of the historic schism. Photograph: iStock

According to Cardinal Reginald Pole the English Reformation was result of Henry VIII’s “fleshy will” and “carnal concupiscence”. It is easy to under(...)

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