P.K. Kunhalikutty, a member of the Indian parliament, speaks to reporters outside the supreme court in New Delhi. The court has deferred a hearing  on a controversial citizenship law. Photograph: T. Narayan/Bloomberg

Controversial new law seen as unconstitutional by opposition, causing months of protest

 Students and activists take part in a protest against Sunday’s  attacks on the  Jawaharlal Nehru University campus, in front of Gateway of India in Mumbai on Monday. Photograph: Divyakant Solanki/EPA

Dozens badly hurt after attackers with rods and sticks struck Jawaharlal Nehru University

Congress-JMM alliance workers celebrate results projecting an assembly majority in the Jharkhand state election in Ranchi on Monday. Photograph: Rajesh Kumar/AFP via Getty Images

Prime minister’s party concedes defeat in assembly elections in Jharkhand state

Thousands  took to the streets in India on Wednesday against a new citizenship law based on religion that has touched off violent unrest. Photograph: Sajjad Hussain/ AFP/Getty Images)

Police crack down on demonstrators in major cities and ban large public gatherings

A policeman fires a teargas shell during a protest against a new citizenship law at the Seelampur area of New Delhi, India on Tuesday.  Photograph: Manish Swarup/AP

Controversial Citizenship Amendment Act triggers violent protests across the country

Demonstrators shout slogans against the Indian government’s Citizenship Amendment Bill in New Delhi on Monday. Photograph: Jewel Samad/AFP via Getty Images

Demonstrations on at least 15 university campuses over Bill favouring non-Muslims

 Demonstrators shout slogans next to a burning barricade during a protest against the Indian government’s Citizenship Amendment Bill in Guwahati on Thursday. Photograph:   Biju Boro/AFP via Getty Images

Protesters claim Bill will attract illegal migrants amid curfew and internet shutdown

Students of Gauhati University take part in a torchlight procession against the Citizenship Amendment Bill   in Guwahati, Assam, India. Photograph: EPA

Activists claim law’s exclusion of Muslims undermines India’s secular constitution

Policemen watch forensic experts at the site where four men suspected of raping and killing a woman were killed in Shadnagar, India, on Friday. Photograph: Mahesh Kumar/AP

Widespread approval after men shot at scene of crime as activists question justification

Indians hold a torch-lit procession to protest against the Citizenship Amendment Bill in Gauhati, northeastern Assam state, India. Photograph: Anupam Nath

Move’s exclusion of undocumented Muslim immigrants angers Opposition leaders

Cow protection is an issue that has dominated Indian politics since Narendra Modi was elected prime minister in 2014. Photograph: Graham Crouch/New York Times

New Delhi Letter: Cow safaris and ambulances among schemes promoted by ruling BJP

Foreign tourists wearing face masks visit the Taj Mahal under heavy smog conditions in Agra on Monday. Photograph: Jewel Samad/AFP via Getty Images

Experimental measure introduced as smog levels reach 20 times the WHO limit

Sikhs offer prayers as they look towards the Gurdwara Kartarpur Sahib in Pakistan after an accord was signed  on a visa-free India-Pakistan Kartarpur corridor. Photograph: Narinder Nanu/AFP

Cross-border corridor rare act of co-operation between nuclear-powered rivals

A train passes vendors in Guwahati, Assam, India: anger is growing in Muslim communities under scheme aiming to separate genuine citizens from “illegal migrants”. Photograph: Dhiraj Singh/Bloomberg

Families face rupture after India declared some 1.9m people to be ‘outlawed’

A Kashmiri man in front of closed shops covered with graffiti in the  commercial hub of Srinagar city centre. Photograph: Yawar Nazir/Getty

Shops, schools and offices empty in response to lockdown and looming rule by New Delhi

Pakistan’s prime minister raises stakes in Kashmir standoff with a televised address

Security personnel stand guard in front of closed shops in Srinagar, as a tense lockdown in the region of seven million residents continued. Photograph: Tauseef Mustafa/AFP

Scores of civilians injured in protests in weeks since India revoked region’s autonomy

Extra paramilitaries and police deployed to disputed Jammu and Kashmir region

Kashmiri women in Srinagar shout pro-freedom slogans before Eid prayers after the scrapping of the special constitutional status for Kashmir by the Indian government. Photograph: Danish Siddiqui

Streets deserted during Muslim festival in action enforcing region’s revocation of rights

Leh, the capital of  Ladakh: locals expect their new status will help them  emerge from the “dominating shadow” of Kashmir. Photograph: Cathal McNaughton

Ladakh celebrates overturning of late-1940s tie to Muslim-majority Kashmir region

Activists of the “Youth Forum for Kashmir” group shout slogans as an Indian  flag with a picture of prime minister Narendra Modi is burned in Lahore, Pakistan on Monday. Photograph: Arif Ali/AFP/Getty Images

Tens of thousands of troops on streets in bid to deter protests after Article 370 revoked

Indian prime minister Narendra Modi: terror legislation introduced by his nationalist BJP party accused of “opening the floodgates to harassment of human rights defenders and activists” by Amnesty International. Photograph:  Prakash Singh/AFP/Getty Images

Bill to broaden ‘terrorist’ definition and increase detentions to go before parliament’s upper house

 A  child walks on the partially dried Yamuna river bed in New Delhi, where groundwater is decreasing at an alarming rate. Photograph: EPA/Harish Tyagi

New Delhi Letter: Majority of the 20m residents forced to make do with 5-10 litres a day

The Indian Space Research Organisation’s Chandrayaan-2 launches at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, an island off the coast of southern India’s Andhra Pradesh state, on Monday. Photograph: Arun Sankar/AFP/Getty Images

Country’s most ambitious mission yet aims to establish it as low-cost space power

A man uses a hand pump to fill up a container with drinking water as others wait in a queue on a street in Chennai, India. Photograph: P Ravikumar/Reuters

Soaring temperatures have stifled the country and led to concerns over water supply

Indian women protest against the deaths of children in Muzaffarpur from a mysterious brain fever. Photograph: Money Sharma/AFP

Encephalitis linked to summer heat leaves many dead and others ill in Bihar

A rag picker carries a sack of sorted recyclable materials atop the Ghazipur landfill site in the east of New Delhi. Photograph: Xavier Galiana/AFP/Getty Images

India’s tallest rubbish heap is 65m high and the size of 40 football fields

BJP candidate Pragya Singh Thakur with  supporters at her residence in Bhopal on May 23th,  the day of vote results  in India’s general election. Photograph: Gagan Nayar/AFP/Getty Images

Prime minister Modi’s Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party tops list with 116 parliamentarians facing charges

India’s president Ram Nath Kovind (left)  administered the oath of office to  Narendra Modi   at a grand ceremony at the presidential palace in New Delhi. Photograph: Reuters/Adnan Abidi

Head of the Hindu nationalist party led gruelling and pugnacious election campaign

Rahul Gandhi, president of the Congress Party: calls for him to step down have intensified among demoralised party workers. Photograph: Pursuance Vishwanathan/Bloomberg

Narendra Modi’s Hindu nationalist party is first to get majority in parliament since 1984

Indian prime minister Narendra Modi after the election results in New Delhi on Thursday. Photograph:  Adnan Abidi/Reuters

‘Together we will build a strong and inclusive India,’ says PM as BJP set to increase majority

India’s prime minister Narendra Modi waves to supporters during a roadshow in Varanasi, India on Paril 25th. Photograph: Adnan Abidi/File

Exit polls indicate that BJP party and allies are poised to win a comfortable majority

Ranjan Gogoi has rejected the allegations as ‘baseless’. Photograph: Reuters/Stringer/File

Ranjan Gogoi is accused of sexual harassment by former supreme court employee

India’s prime minister Narendra Modi shows his ink-marked finger after casting his vote outside a polling station during the third phase of general election in Ahmedabad, India on April 23rd. Photograph: Amit Dave/Reuters

PM’s party displays anti-Muslim bias while campaigning in Hindu-majority country

Indian women wait outside to cast their votes at a polling station in Supana village in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. Photograph: Rajat Gupta/EPA

Only 7% of candidates who contested India’s parliamentary elections were women

Indian voters stand in queue to cast their votes at a polling station as security personnel stand guard during India’s general election in Amoni village, in northeastern state of Assam on April 11th. Photograph: Biju Boro/AFP/Getty

High turnout reported in elections billed as the country’s most important in decades

Indian Congress party president Rahul Gandhi takes part in a roadshow rally ahead of the upcoming general election, in Amethi. Photograph: Sanjay Kanojia/AFP/Getty Images

Narendra Modi on course for victory in what has been dubbed a battle ‘for India’s soul’

BJP leader and Indian prime minister Narendra Modi speaks in New Delhi, India. Photograph: Harish Tyagi/EPA

India’s ruling Hindu nationalists pledge to scrap historical statute if voted back into power

People watch Indian prime minister Narendra Modi’s  address to the nation at a shop in Jammu on Wednesday. Photograph: Jaipal Singh/EPA

Prime minister says country must be able to defend itself amid criticism ahead of election

A street astrologer taking rest in hot summer afternoon in Kolkata, India in May, 2013. Photograph: Saikat Paul/Pacific Press/LightRocket/Getty

Fortune-tellers, clairvoyants across country already ‘organising’ the heavens for clients

 Indian prime minister Narendra Modi with other party leaders during a National Democratic Alliance rally in Chennai. Photograph: Arun Sankar/AFP/Getty Images

First stage of world’s largest democratic exercise begins with Congress Party seeking revival

Little surprised that with general elections around the corner, the josh (zeal) of patriotism hasn’t even spared the skies,” former Kashmir chief minister Mehbooba Mufti tweeted. Photograph:  Jagadeesh Nv/EPA

Air stewards were told to conclude in-flight announcements by saying “Victory to India”

Indian soldiers keeping vigil before the handing over  of Indian air force pilot  Abhinandan Varthaman at a checkpoint on the  Attari-Wagah border on March 1st. Photograph:  EPA

Opposition claims prime minister ordered the strikes on Pakistan to boost his image as a forceful leader in the run-up to election(...)

Indians  shout slogans against Pakistan as they hold posters and pictures of captive Indian Air Force pilot Abhinandan Varthaman. Photograph: Dibyangshu Sarkar/AFP/Getty Images

Pakistan’s decision to return pilot has considerably soothed tension between the two sides

People celebrate during a rally in Karachi,  Pakistan  after officials claimed two Indian military aircrafts were shot down.  Photgaph: Akhtar Soomro/Reuters

Jingoism rampant as Pakistan and India appear to court potential disaster

Indian soldiers inspect the remains of an Indian Air Force helicopter after it crashed in Budgam district, outside Srinagar Photograph: Tauseef Mustafa/AFP/Getty

Islamabad claims it captured one Indian pilot after his aircraft was shot down

Pakistani residents walk on a bridge in the mountainous area of Balakot where the Indian Air Force launched a raid on Tuesday. Photograph: Getty Images

Nuclear-armed neighbours put respective militaries on ‘high alert’ after pre-dawn strike

Indian prime minister Narendra Modi: opposition leaders accuse him of fostering social unrest by pursuing anti-Muslim Hindu nationalist policies. Photograph:  Sanjay Kanojia/AFP

Campaigns under way reveal vicious rhetoric in appeal to electorate of 900 million voters

Indian army soldiers arrive near the site of a gun battle between suspected militants and Indian security forces in Pinglan village in south Kashmir’s Pulwama district on Monday. Photograph: Younis Khaliq/Reuters

India says two masterminds of bombing in which 40 policemen died were killed in clash

Indian paramilitary soldiers hang on to an ambulance  near the  explosion site in Pampore, Kashmir. Photograph: AP Photo/Dar Yasin

Pakistani militant group claim responsibility for attack which killed at least 40, injured 13

Rahul Gandhi, president of India’s main opposition Congress Party in New Delhi, India. Photograph: Reuters/Anushree Fadnavis

PM Narenda Modi called ‘the Führer’ by opposition Rahul Gandhi for poor jobs figures

Priyanka Gandhi Vadra: formal entry into politics has led to the Bharatiya Janata Party  accusing the Gandhi family of perpetuating dynastic rule. Photograph: Sanjay Kanojia/AFP

Priyanka Gandhi Vadra takes charge of eastern Uttar Pradesh, reporting to brother

Dhobi Ghat in Mumbai, India. File photograph: Marcos Freire/EyeEm/Getty Images

Oxfam review finds 1% of country’s population holds more than half of its wealth

A Hindu holy man dances holding a mace as he arrives for a ritualistic dip in Prayagraj, India. Photograph: AP Photo/Rajesh Kumar Singh

More than 150m expected at Ganges and Yamuna rivers for ancient cleansing ritual

In the western Gujarat and northern Haryana states, cow slaughter is punishable with imprisonment of up to 14 years, or a fine, or both Photograph: Deepak Malik/NurPhoto/Getty

Preserving cows under BJP rule has resulted in 65 people being lynched, beaten to death

Indian women participate in the “Women’s Wall” in Kochi. Photograph: Prakash Elamakkara/EPA

Women of all ages and occupations stood shoulder-to-shoulder in display of solidarity

 Congress Party workers celebrate the party’s lead in votes counting and potential victory in assembly elections, with a cutout of party president Rahul Gandhi at party headquarter in New Delhi, India. Photograph: Rajat Gupta/EPA

Rahul Gandhi’s Congress Party ‘revived’ ahead of next year’s national poll

The “Statue Of Unity”, the world’s tallest  statue, in India’s western Gujarat state: On the Life Expectancy Index, India is ranked 163rd of 224 countries, while the Global Hunger Index ranks it 103rd of 119. Photograph: Sam Panthaky/AFP

Focus on attention-grabbing such as statues rather than domestic ills, critics say

An Indian Sikh devotee offers prayers while looking through binocular towards the Gurdwara Kartarpur Sahib  in Pakistan Photograph: Narinder Nanu/AFP/Getty

New pilgrimage route from Indian village to Sikh temple aimed to ease regional tensions

A handler bathes Coconut, a female elephant, at the Wildlife SOS Elephant Conservation and Care Centre  in the northern town of Mathura, India. Photograph:  Anushree Fadnavis/Reuters

NGO-run facility near New Delhi offers digital X-ray, hydrotherapy and dental wing

Election material with pictures of Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and Congress party president Rahul Gandhi in a shop in Bhopal. Photograph: Sanjeev Gupta/EPA

Water, power and roads no longer deemed enough to buy power in regional polls

A monkey on the banks of the Yamuna river, next to the Taj Mahal in Agra, India. Photograph: Saumya Khandelwal/Reuters

Demand to rename Agra, the city of the 17th-century Taj Mahal, is most curious

The heavy smog in  New Delhi. It is likely to get worse when millions of residents illuminate their homes with oil lamps and burst firecrackers on Wednesday to celebrate Diwali, the annual festival of lights. Photograph: Getty Images

The city’s toxic air, classified as ‘hazardous’, is over 15 times the World Health Organisation’s recommended limit

A general view of the “Statue of Unity” portraying Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of the founding fathers of India, during its inauguration in the western state of Gujarat. Photograph: Amit Dave/Reuters

182m-high tribute to independence leader Patel criticised for scale and cost of €355m

MJ Akbar during his swearing-in ceremony as a minister. Photograph: Prakash Singh/AFP/Getty Images

Former journalist MJ Akbar accused of predatory behaviour over 30-year period

Bollywood actor Tanushree Dutta: alleges she was sexually harassed by Nana Patekar in 2008. Photograph: Getty Images

Female reporter claims junior foreign minister MJ Akbar preyed on her in job interview

Passengers stand on the side of train carriages in Mumbai. Photograph: Dhiraj Singh/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Some 24 million candidates will take tests for highly prized government jobs

India’s supreme court in New Delhi:  Adultery is no longer punishable with a five-year prison sentence, a fine or both. Photograph: Anindito Mukherjee

Indian penal code section deemed ‘archaic, arbitrary and unconstitutional’

India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi. Photograph: Adnan Abidi/File Photo/Reuters

Narendra Modi accused of cynicism for ‘Modicare’ initiative ahead of general election

The court announced the verdict in Delhi   drawing cheers from a crowd of LBGTI Indians and their supporters gathered on a lawn outside the building. File photograph:Arun Sankar/Getty Images

Prosecutions were rare but law was frequently used to blackmail LGBT community

A  flooded area in India’s southern state of Kerala, one of the country’s worst-hit areas, where over 400 people have lost their lives. Photograph: Sivaram V/Reuters

Kerala minister launches campaign to raise funds as food runs short in relief camps

Actor-turned-politician Divya Spandana: has been accused of “appreciating the people of Pakistan, India’s nuclear rival”. Photograph: Manjunath Kiran/AFP/Getty

Accused under antiquated law, Divya Spandana has case adjourned

Pakistan’s prime minister Imran Khan. Photograph: Press Information Department/Handout via Reuters

Relations have deteriorated sharply between neighbouring states in past three years

‘Letter Carrier’, 1828. A lithograph from L’Inde Français, 1828. From the collection of Jean Claude Carriere. Photograph: Art Media/Print Collector/Getty Images

The runners will serve remote mountainous constituencies during forthcoming byelections

Volunteers and rescue personal evacuate people  in a residential area in Ernakulam district, in the Indian state of Kerala, on Friday. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Worst flooding in state in a century sparks humanitarian crisis, with 223,000 homeless

India’s supreme court castigated the authorities for not acting quickly enough to protect the Taj Mahal in Agra. Photograph: EPA/STR

Protection of monument from environmental degradation a ‘hopeless cause’, court rules

Indian PM Narendra Modi and Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom, president of the Republic of Maldives. Photograph: Mohd Zakir/Hindustan Times via Getty Images)

Return of helicopters a further sign of failure to halt China’s growing influence in region

Women mourn as people carry the body of  journalist  Shujaat Bukhari, who was killed by gunmen outside his office, during his funeral in Kreeri, north of Srinagar. Photograph: Danish Ismail/Reuters

Thousands attend funeral of editor shot dead outside his office by ‘Islamic militant group’

Rumours of children being kidnapped and killed, allegedly for their body parts, spread over Facebook and WhatsApp. Photograph: Chris Ratcliffe/Bloomberg

At least six killed in as many weeks over child kidnapping rumours fostered online

Indian prime minister Narendra Modi. Photograph: Money Sharma/AFP/Getty Images

Country’s Catholic 2.4% under attack from radical Hinduism and Indian nationalism

Residents of Nanga village in India   in a building damaged by alleged shelling from the Pakistani side of the  Kashmir border on May 23th. Photograph:  EPA/Jaipal Singh

Deal will end daily exchanges of artillery and missile fire across disputed border in Kashmir

Health officials deposit a bat in a container after catching it inside a well at Changaroth in Kozhikode, Kerala on Monday. The Nipah virus outbreak has triggered a state-wide health alert. Photograph:  AFP/Getty Images

Virus transmitted by bats and pigs identified as having potential for major outbreak

India’s prime minister Narendra Modi: he has said that plastic surgery, genetic science and stem cell study existed thousands of years ago in ancient India. Photograph: Simon Dawson/EPA

Leaders of ruling BJP party reject claims that internet is a modern-day Western invention

 Relatives of Indian journalist Sandeep Sharma grieving on March 26th  after he was fatally hit  by a speeding truck in Bhind in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Photograph: Getty Images

Journalists who report on India’s ‘sand mafia’ are frequent victims of violence

People in Mumbai, India, sitting on railway tracks  on March 20th during a protest demanding recruitment into  railway services. Photograph: Reuters/Francis Mascarenhas

Postgraduates and some with doctorates among those seeking work with state-owned rail network

Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau with  his wife Sophie Gregoire Trudeau,  daughter Ella-Grace  and son Xavier at the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Canada pledges not to support anyone reviving a separatist movement in India

Maldivian police officers stand guard near the Maldives Democratic Party opposition party headquarters after Maldives president Abdulla Yameen declared a state of emergency for 15 days. Photograph: Reuters

Exiled former president calls for ‘physical presence’ to help lift state of emergency

A man sorting through his destroyed home following shelling across the “line of control” in northern Kashmir. Photograph: Getty Images

Four Indian soldiers killed in latest exchange across ‘line of control’

A rocket is fired from the Indian Navy destroyer ship INS Ranvir during an exercise drill in the Bay Of Bengal off the coast of Chennai on April 18th, 2017. Photograph: Arun Sankar/AFP/Getty Images

Will strengthen presence in Indian Ocean to counter growing Chinese hegemony

The Irish woman was out celebrating her 21st birthday with friends in the Kalighat area of Kolkata. Photograph: iStock

Sujoy Mitra raped Irish woman after spiking her drink in May 2013 in Kolkata

Visitors take  selfies in front of the Taj Mahal in Agra, India, today. India is to restrict the number of daily visitors to the 17th century monument  in an effort to preserve it. Photograph: Dominique Faget/AFP/Getty Images

Cap expected to help preserve monument and prevent stampedes due to major crowds

Indian children wear masks as they take part in a protest against air pollution: the city’s air quality index is  15 times over the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organisation. Photograph: EPA/Rajat Gupta

Schools closed and people advised against moving around

A beggar on the side of the road in Hyderabad, India. A senior police official said beggars would be “housed” in structures adjacent to the city jail where they were being provided with food and medical assistance. Photograph:  Noah Seelam/AFP/Getty Images

6,000 people in Hyderabad to be put in special facility before arrival of Trump daughter

Indian schoolchildren cover their faces as they walk to school amid heavy smog in New Delhi on November 8th, 2017. Doctors are warning of a public health emergency. Photograph: Sajjad Hussain/AFP/Getty

Toxic Delhi air 16 times above permissible limits leaves millions gasping

Indian prime minister Narendra Modi pays tribute on the 148th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi’s birth , on October 2nd, 2017, at Rajghat in New Delhi. Photograph: Prakash Singh/AFP/Getty Images

Right-wing Modern India body claims second gunman involved in New Delhi 1948 killing

Opposition members said the state government was “wilfully discriminating” against more than 200 million Muslims. Photograph: iStock

The Hindu ruling party in Uttar Pradesh has been playing down India’s Muslim past

The mother of a stampede victim sits beside her son’s body as it is transported from a hospital in Mumbai, India, on Friday. Photograph: Danish Siddiqui/Reuters

Incident took place during heavy rain as commuters feared colonial-era bridge would collapse

Members of the National Human Rights and Crime Control Organisation hold candles along with photographs of Indian journalist Gauri Lankesh during a  vigil in Amritsar, India. Photograph: Raminder Pal Singh/EPA

Authorities clash over the killing of government critic Gauri Lankesh in Bangalore

Bottles of whiskey and vodka on the shelves of a liquor store in Chandigarh, Punjab, India. Photograph:  Sanjit Das/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Authorities in Chandigarh attempt to highlight ‘ill-effects of alcohol consumption’

Relatives of Indian journalist Gauri Lankesh grieve by her body at the Ravindra Kalakshetra cultural centre in Bengaluru on Wednesday. Photograph: Manjunath Kiran/AFP/Getty Images

Gauri Lankesh (55) was critic of federal government, caste system and Hindu nationalists

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