Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau attends a rally in Winnipeg, Canada. Photograph: Sean Kilpatrick/The Canadian Press via AP

Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau, hit by scandals and locked in a near dead-heat ahead of Monday’s election, has taken his campaign on the offen(...)

Declining birth rates are no longer confined to the western world. Photograph: Erik De Castro/Reuters

The conventional projection by the UN is that world population, currently 7.7 billion, will increase to 11.2 billion in 2100, then stabilise before sl(...)