A photograph taken in January of Mexico’s president Andrés Manuel López Obrador (right) welcoming Spain’s prime minister Pedro Sanchez at the National Palace in Mexico City. Photograph: Rodrigo Arangua/AFP/Getty Images.

Spanish king and Pope Francis receive letters requesting atonement

Catalan independence leaders  at the start of their trial at the supreme court in Madrid on February 12th. Photograph: Emilio Naranjo/Reuters

Intervention a notable victory for independence movement in its quest for international support

Catalan regional president Quim Torra smiles surrounded by yellow ribbons  during a plenary session at the Catalan Parliament, in Barcelona. Photograph:  EPA/ Alejandro Garcia

Electoral board ordered removal of symbols supporting prisoners

Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), funded by Spain, was the first man to circumnavigate the globe and the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Spanish academy of history claims Magellan’s feat as Spain’s, to Portugal’s dismay

A scene from the Kamikaze theatre company’s play about the notorious sexual assault of a young woman in Pamplona in 2016. Photograph: Vanessa Rábade

Hyper-realist theatre production uses original courtroom transcripts

A video-grab  of the speaker of the Catalan regional parliament, Roger Torrent, as he testified  at the supreme court in Madrid in the so-called “process” trial against 12 Catalan separatists leaders. Photograph: EPA

Officers did not use undue force during referendum, witnesses claim

Former Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy testifies during the trial of jailed Catalan separatist leaders at the supreme court in Madrid on Wednesday. Photograph: Reuters

Former prime minister Rajoy a witness in rebellion case

 Following the trial of Catalonian leaders on a screen in Barcelona, on Thursday. The trial is being held at the supreme court in Madrid. Photograph: Enric Fontcuberta/EPA

Former prime minister Mariano Rajoy is due to take the stand as a witness next week

Aer Lingus was acquired by the Willie Walsh-led IAG in 2015. Photograph: Frank Grealish

Aer Lingus and Spanish carriers Iberia and Vueling are owned by UK holding firm IAG

Íñigo Errejón, former deputy leader of Podemos, and Podemos leader  Pablo Iglesias in October 2016. File photograph: Gerard Julien/AFP/Getty Images

Infighting, policy clashes and Venezuelan crisis leave leftist party in near-chaos

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez delivers an institutional statement after an extraordinary cabinet meeting at the presidential palace in Madrid, on Friday. Photograph: Chema Moya/EPA

Popular Party leader Pablo Casado described the PM as a ‘criminal’ who has committed high treason

 Video-grab of defendant Oriol Junqueras, former Catalan regional deputy president, testifying in a   case against 12 Catalan pro-independence politicians involved in the illegal referendum in 2017. Photograph: Spanish Supreme Court’s Institute

Former vice-president Oriol Junqueras faces rebellion charge in high-profile Madrid trials

Nine of the 12 people on trial are former members of the Catalan cabinet. Photograph:  Emilio Naranjo Pool/Getty Images

Pro-independence leader Puigdemont appeals for EU to condemn Spanish legal process

Jailed catalan separatists leaders Jordi Sànchez, Oriol Junqueras, Jordi Turull, Joaquim Forn, Jordi Cuixart, Josep Rull and Raul Romeva inside Lledoners jail in Sant Joan de Vilatorrada, 50km from Barcelona. Photograph:  Omnium Cultural/AFP)

Madrid election rumours rife as rebellion and sedition court case gets under way

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez’s fragile government will need the backing of the two Catalan pro-independence parties in parliament in order to approve the 2019 budget. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou

Spain PM suffers backlash as government seeks independent figure to facilitate talks

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez makes a statement on Venezuela at La Moncloa palace in Madrid on Monday. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou/AFP/Getty Images

Close ties with South American country make crisis a major issue in Spanish domestic politics

Pictures of jailed Catalan pro-independence leaders are held up during a demonstration in Barcelona, on Friday, in support of 12 pro-independence leaders that were transferred from Barcelona to Madrid ahead of the start of their trial. Photograph: Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty Images

Twelve independence leaders to be tried by Spanish supreme court over events in 2017

Jose Rosello and Victoria Garcia, the parents of the two-year-old boy found after falling into a deep borehole near Málaga. Photograph: Gregorio Marrero/AP

Body of two-year-old Julen Roselló Jiménez found nearly two weeks after fall near Málaga

Taxi drivers protest in Barcelona at what they claim is a failure by authorities to regulate the activities of digital ride-sharing companies. Photograph: EPA

Strike causes widespread disruption in Madrid and Barcelona

The narrow borehole in which a two-year-old fell down in Malaga. Photograph: Malaga Fire brigades/EPA

Two-year-old fell into 25cm-wide, 110m-deep hole on Sunday in Totalán, southern Spain

Spain’s far-right Vox party regional candidate Francisco Serrano delivers a speech next to leader Santiago Abascal as they celebrate results after the Andalusian regional elections in Seville. Photograph: Marcelo Del Pozo/File Photo/Reuters

Vox party ensures bullfighting and hunting get boost under new administration

The Lego A/S store in Copenhagen, Denmark, says it has to prioritise certain language versions and is not able to provide information in every language. Photograph: Luke MacGregor/Bloomberg

Companies face legal action for not using Catalan in packaging and instructions

Santiago Abascal, leader of Spain’s far-right party Vox. Vox has vowed to fight against what Mr Abascal calls “the dictatorship of the politically correct”, including a growing campaign for women’s rights. Photograph: Cristina Quicler/AFP/Getty Images

Vox’s support needed to form new right-wing government in Andalucía

Catalan pro-independence supporters take part in a demonstration under the motto “Let’s overturn the regime”, in Barcelona,  Spain, on Friday.  Photograph: Toni Albir/EPA

Worryingly for the prime minister, there are now voices of dissent within his Socialist Party

Riot police clash with supporters of Catalan independence during a protest in Barcelona on Friday. Photograph: Angel Garcia/Bloomberg

Madrid government claims trip will boost chances of Catalan solution

The Casa Llotja de Mar building in  Barcelona, where Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez is due to gather his cabinet on Friday. Photograph: Albert Gea/Reuters

A day of planned demonstrations in the city follows a year of turmoil for Catalonia

Banner of Josep Rull during a demonstration in July. The Catalan government says Rull has lost 7kg in weight since beginning a hunger strike in prison earlier this month. Photograph: Xavier Bonilla/NurPhoto via Getty Images

Interview: Imprisoned politician Josep Rull awaits trial for rebellion

Catalan president Quim Torra: accused of invoking a civil conflict that caused dozens of deaths. Photograph: Toni Albir/EPA

Quim Torra’s allusion to violent route to independence draws widespread criticism

The far-right Vox party leader Santiago Abascal: said it would “never be an obstacle” to a new government. Photograph: Luca Piergiovanni/EPA

Election leaves conservatives seeking backing of Vox to form new government

Ángel Boza, one of the members of so-called Wolfpack, leaves the higher court of justice of Navarre on Wednesday after being released on bail. Photograph: Raul Caro/EPA

Five men convicted of sexually abusing woman at Pamplona festival but absolved of rape

People hold Spanish flags during a demonstration called by the far-right party Vox against Catalan separatists on December 1st in Madrid. The Catalonia issue was a significant factor in Vox’s success in Andalusian elections.  Photograph: Oscar Del Pozo/AFP/Getty Images

Vox party hails performance in Socialist stronghold as part of ‘Reconquest’ of Spain

Key Andalusia vote opens electoral cycle and may set tone for other poll outcomes

Spanish construction workers walk through Gibraltar streets. Photograph: A.Carrasco Ragel/EPA

Prime minister Pedro Sánchez says he will vote against document as it stands

Supporters of Spain’s late dictator Francisco Franco give fascist salutes at Madrid’s Plaza de Oriente. Photograph: Paul Hanna

Anniversary of dictator’s death marked as exhumation controversy continues to rage

The European Union flag and the Spanish flag are seen on a building in Madrid. The draft Brexit agreement includes a Gibraltar-specific protocol creating several working groups between Madrid and London. File photograph: Reuters

Spain sees upside of draft Brexit deal

 A woman holding a placard against the supreme court decision that clients and not banks pay the tax on mortgages. Photograph: Ramon Costa/SOPA Images/LightRocket

Several recent cases have dealt a blow to the credibility of the Spanish judiciary

Banco Santander: Spain’s mortgage tax varies from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent of the loan, depending on where it is collected. Photograph: Angel Navarrete/Bloomberg

Controversial legal U-turn made amid fears of homeowner lawsuits seeking backdating

Catalan regional president Quim Torra  who said on Friday that Madrid had “missed an opportunity to take the judicial dimension out of a conflict that is political”. Photograph: Quique Garcia/EPA

Spanish government accused of meddling in judicial process

A  placard displaying pictures of Franco and  Hitler during a rally  in Madrid, held last week  against the proposal of moving Franco’s remains to Madrid’s Almudena Cathedral. Photograph: Oscar Del Pozo/AFP/Getty Images

Madrid hoped church would help solve conundrum over dictator’s exhumation

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez chairs the weekly cabinet meeting  on Friday, in Seville. Photograph: José Manuel Vidal/EPA

Upcoming trial of 18 independence leaders sparks tension in Madrid

The basilica at the Valley of the Fallen in San Lorenzo del Escorial near Madrid, where Francisco Franco is buried. Photograph: Javier Soriano/AFP/Getty

Franco’s remains could end up in Madrid cathedral, making it a mecca for extremists

Inés Madrigal, who was abducted as a baby in 1969, speaking to journalists outside a Madrid court on Monday.   She described the verdict as “bittersweet”. Photograph: Javier Soriano/AFP/Getty Images

Eduardo Vela found guilty, but statute of limitations means he avoids jail

Catalan regional President Quim Torra: street demonstrators booed him for failing to be strident enough in defiance of the Spanish state. Photograph: Quique Garcia/EPA

Fate of jailed and exiled politicians highlights rift between leading secessionist parties

Catalonian regional president Quim Torra: said violence had no place in the independence movement. Photograph: Quique Garcia/EPA

Madrid must agree to binding independence poll by November, says Quim Torra

A student draped in the Spanish national flag stands between Catalan pro-independence students during a student demonstration “1-O, No Oblivion, neither Pardon” on the first anniversary of the Catalan independence referendum, in Barcelona. Photograph: Quique Garcia

Spanish region’s president Quim Torra criticised for praising separatist ‘pressure’

Unionist activists removing Catalan independence symbols in Canet de Mar.  Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

Spanish region is split between unionists and separatists, a year on from independence vote

Pro-independence flags on bridge over Catalonia’s AP7 motorway. Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

A year on from Catalan referendum, tensions still simmer over independence from Madrid

Spanish justice minister Dolores Delgado: relationship with a jailed former policeman is threatening to destabilise the Socialist government. Photograph:   Fernando Villar/EPA

String of scandals and U-turns puts pressure on Socialist PM Pedro Sánchez

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez: said the allegations were part of an attempt by parties on the political right to discredit him. Photograph:  Mariscal/EPA

Pedro Sánchez’s doctoral thesis is ‘a piece of rubbish’, says newspaper

People wave pro-independence Catalan flags during a demonstration in Barcelona. Photograph: Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty Images

National day celebrations, known as Diada, bring hundreds of thousands on to streets

Catalonian regional president Quim Torra  at the National Theatre of Catalonia in Barcelona, on Tuesday. “We will never renounce our right to self-determination,” Mr Torra said. Photograph:  Alejandro Garcia/EPS

Torra references Martin Luther King and calls on Catalans to take to the streets

Seventy per cent of under-threes in Spain are not in child care

A man runs after over 100 migrants forced their way into the Spanish territory of Ceuta in north Africa:  10  migrants at the border fence between Morocco and the Spanish enclave were arrested on August 28th, 2018. Photograph: Joaquin Sanchez

Perceived U-turn prompts left to condemn Socialist policy while EU’s far right approves

Yellow ribbons shaped as a cross are placed on a beach near Barcelona in support of  jailed Catalan separatist leaders on May 27th, 2018. Photograph: Pau Barrena/AFP/Getty

Pro-independence ribbons in public places prompt fears of political violence in Spain

Luis Magallanes with pianist and humanitarian Gabriella Montero.

Opera singer Luis Magallanes: ‘I’ve gone from a humanitarian crisis to being here’

The basilica at the Valley of the Fallen in San Lorenzo del Escorial near Madrid. Photograph: Javier Soriano/AFP/Getty Images

Decree means dictator’s remains will be removed from Valley of Fallen mausoleum

Number of young people falling to their deaths when attempting to jump from balconies

Spanish minister for territorial policy Meritxell Batet at the Moncloa palace in Madrid. Photograph: Javier Soriano/AFP/Getty Images

Spanish minister Meritxell Batet on her government’s detente with Catalan leaders

 The new leader of the Spanish conservative Popular Party, Pablo Casado, reacts after being elected to the position  at the party’s national congress, in Madrid. Photograph: ZIPI/EPA

Pablo Casado promises a return to traditional conservative values for Popular Party

 Popular Party leadership candidate  Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría  in Madrid, Spain. Photograph: Pablo Cuadra/Getty Images

As the Popular Party chooses a new leader, members grapple with a threat of extinction

Catalonia’s ousted leader Carles Puigdemont at a press conference in Berlin in May 2018. A Spanish judge has dropped a European arrest warrant for Mr Puigdemont. Photograph:  Tobias Schwarz/AFP/Getty Images

Spanish supreme court backtracks in Carles Puigdemont case following German ruling

The Korrika race in Bayonne in southwest France is held annually to promote the Basque language Euskara. Alongside the Basque autonomous community, the northern Spanish region of Navarre and southern France also have substantial Basque-speaking populations. Photograph: Nicolas Mollo/AFP/Getty Images

Euskera speakers on the rise, although some see it as politically tainted

 Catalonia’s former leader Carles Puigdemont: prosecutors said they would soon decide whether to authorise his extradition. Photograph:  Hannibal Hanschke/Reuters

Carles Puigdemont could be extradited to face trial for misuse of public funds

 Spanish prime minister, Pedro Sanchez, welcomes Catalan regional president, Quim Torra (right),  at La Moncloa Palace, in Madrid, Spain. Photograph: EPA/Ballesteros

Prime minister meets with region’s leader Quim Torra in Madrid

Rescued Spanish citizen Patricia Aguilar, who disappeared in 2017 and has lived with a sect in a remote jungle region of Peru. Photograph:  AFP Photo/Municipality of San Martin de Pangoa

Man arrested after allegedly keeping women as slaves

Spain’s King Felipe VI with Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez and Catalan regional president Quim Torra at a sports opening ceremony in Tarragona, last week. Photograph: Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty

Pedro Sánchez tries to reduce negative view of capital held by independence movements

The Spanish dictator Francisco Franco: his regime is believed to have encouraged the separation of children of leftist republicans from their mothers in order for them to be raised by families that were sympathetic to his far-right, Catholic ideology. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Doctor accused of involvement in illegal adoption racket during dictatorship

The  calle Estafeta during the San Fermin bull-running festival in Pamplona: event brings about a million visitors to the city from across Spain and abroad. Photograph:  Pablo Blazquez Dominguez/Getty

Spanish bullfighting industry and fans criticise comments ahead of bull-running festival

Spain’s Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez learned English in Dublin and once attended a Shamrock Rovers match, he told Taoiseach Leo Varadkar at their meeting in Madrid on Thursday. Photograph: REUTERS/Susana Vera

Taoiseach fits in trip to view Picasso’s Guernica after meeting new Spanish PM

Search and rescue: some of the migrants picked up in the Mediterranean Sea. Photograph: SOS Mediterranée/AFP

Aquarius and passengers accepted by new PM Pedro Sánchez after Italian crackdown

 Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez (centre) with his cabinet after their first  meeting at the Moncloa Palace in Madrid. The cabinet has the highest number of female ministers in the country’s history with 11 women and six  men. Photograph: Pablo Blazquez Dominguez/Getty Images

Eleven out of 18 ministers in Pedro Sánchez’s cabinet are women

The civil guard presence at Bilbao ferry terminal has been increased to control stowaway attempts. Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

Security tightened around terminal in bid to thwart increasingly ‘desperate’ stowaways

A protest against a judge’s decision to sentence eight defendants to prison, accused of assaulting two Civil Guard officers and their girlfriends in the village of Alsasua, in Navarra, northeastern Spain. Photograph: EPA/Jesus Diges

Court found that youths in Spanish town of Alsasua targeted civil guards in attack

Likely new foreign minister Josep Borrell has been outspoken on Spain’s territorial issue. Photograph: Frederick Florin/AFP/Getty Images

New PM Pedro Sánchez sets the Catalan crisis and gender parity in cabinet as his key goals

An image of  Mallorca, Spain. File photograph: Getty Images

A man in his early 20s has been found dead at an apartment block in Mallorca

Pedro Sánchez acknowledges applause in the Spanish parliament after winning his vote of no confidence in prime minister Mariano Rajoy. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou/AFP/Getty Images

Pedro Sánchez pulls off unlikely feat but fragile government faces myriad challenges

Spain’s new leader  Pedro Sánchez (left) shakes hands with deposed prime minister Mariano Rajoy  after Mr Sánchez won no-confidence motion in the Spanish parliament in Madrid on Friday. Photograph:  Pierre-Philippe Marcou/Getty Images

Socialist becomes the new PM with the support of a ‘Frankenstein coalition’

Spain’s prime minister Mariano Rajoy during a motion of no confidence debate at parliament in Madrid on Thursday. Photograph: Juan Carlos Hidalgo/Reuters

Leader could resign ahead of no-confidence vote amid torrent of corruption allegations

Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy gives a speech two days before a no-confidence motion against his government. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou/AFP/Getty Images

Spain’s parliament is more fractured than it has been since the return to democracy

 Spanish Socialist Party announced on May 25th   the presentation of a motion of no confidence against the Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy. Photograph: EPA/Chema Moya

Spanish prime minister faces no-confidence vote this week

Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy: Although he now cuts an isolated and weak figure, the fragmented nature of Spanish politics could yet save him. Photograph: Reuters

Socialists could struggle to gather support for no-confidence vote against prime minister

Newly elected Catalan regional leader Quim Torra outside the Estremera prison near Madrid where he visited Jordi Turull, Josep Rull and  other pro-independence politicians who are jailed there. Photograph: Sergio Perez/Reuters

Spanish direct rule remains after Quim Torra appoints jailed and exiled politicians

Girls skate next to a graffiti reading in Basque “ETA, the people with you” in the Spanish Basque village of Hernani. The militant separatist group announced its dissolution earlier this month. Photograph: Ander Gillenea/AFP/Getty Images

Marked surge in Spanish unionism unnerves nationalists in northern region

Speaker of the Catalan parliament, Roger Torrent, watches as new Catalan president Quim Torra takes the oath of office at the regional government’s headquarters in Barcelona on Thursday. Photograph: Alberto Estevez/EPA

Ciudadanos urges PM to act swiftly to curtail any fresh attempts at unilateral secession

Newly elected Catalonia regional president Quim Torra in the Catalan parliament on Monday. Photograph:   Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty Images

Catalan parliament votes in candidate handpicked by Puigdemont to end stalemate

Ian Gibson: ‘I didn’t want to die without revising the book, it was a moral obligation’

Ian Gibson has lived in Spain for decades and is best known for his work on the poet Federico García Lorca

Joaquim “Quim” Torra:  the candidate proposed by former Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont to head the regional Catalan government. Photograph: Luis Felipe Castilleja/Reuters

Unionists warn against ‘xenophobic’ Joaquim ‘Quim’ Torra as president

MujeresRtve: one of La 1’s newscasters in black on Friday

Journalists wear black and share claims of manipulation by superiors

JxCat party spokeswoman Elsa Artadi  and party members:  to avert an election, pro-independence parties may propose a less controversial candidate for president such as Ms Artadi.  Photograph: Toni Albir/EPA

Controversial move permitting exile to exert power from abroad likely to be blocked

Three Eta militants: now disbanded group complains the nearly 250 of its members in Spanish prisons are deliberately kept in jails far from their families.  Photograph: AFP/Gara.net

Basque terrorist group says it has ‘dissolved all structures’ and ended its ‘political project’

Hundreds  gather at the palace of justice after the sentencing hearing of the trial of five men accused of gang raping an 18-year-old during San Fermines fiestas, in Pamplona. Photograph: Villar Lopez

Pamplona and Madrid among cities in which protesters chanted ‘It’s not abuse, it’s rape’

Lawyer Eduardo Ranz, with  family members of Spanish Civil War victims who want their dead relatives exhumed, at the entrance of the Basilica of the Valley of the Fallen. Photograph: Juan Medina

Families want to exhume bodies of loved ones buried next to Spanish dictator

 President of Madrid’s regional government  Cristina Cifuentes resigns on Wednesday at a press conference in Madrid, Spain.  Photograph: Emilio Naranjo/EPA

Cristina Cifuentes of Popular Party resigns after footage emerges of supermarket incident

Spanish customs officers and police unload a shipment of cocaine from a vessel called Riptide at the port of Vigo, northwestern Spain, in June  2013. File photograph: Miguel Riopa/AFP/Getty Images

Madrid Letter: Controversy fuels success of Galicia-based ‘Fariña’ TV show set in 1980s

Supporters  gather outside the Madrid court as eight people go on trial accused of assault and terrorist threats on two civil guard officers in   northern Spain in 2016. Photograph: Fernando Villar/EPA

Eight youths face terrorist charges after civil guards hospitalised in northern Spain in 2016

Activists put up a placard asking for the release of jailed separatist leaders Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart and reading “freedom to political prisoners”. Photograph: John MacDougall/AFP/Getty Images

Madrid compares pro-independence activity to terrorism but activists insist it is not violent

Former  Catalonia leader Carles Puigdemont: allowed to go free from Neumünster prison after paying €75,000 in bail. Photograph: Martti Kainulainen/AFP/Getty Images

Former Catalan leader, released on bail, could still face trial for misuse of public funds

Cristina Cifuentes attends the town hall’s plenary session in Madrid, a day after news broke of the scandal that accuses her of falsifying a university master’s degree. Photograph: Emilio Naranjo/EPA

Politician did not attend classes and university falsified documents, newspaper claims

 Former Catalan minister Clara Ponsatí leaves after she was granted bail, following her appearance at Edinburgh Sheriff Court in Edinburgh, Scotland. Photograph: EPA/Andy Rain

Catalan politician Clara Ponsatí hands herself in to Scottish authorities

The Catalan separatist flag lies on the ground as protesters shout slogans during demonstrations after the detention of former Catalan president Carles Puigdemont. Photograph: Angel Garcia/ Bloomberg

Arrest of Carles Puigdemont in Germany comes as Spanish supreme court formalises charges of rebellion against 13 Catalan politicia(...)

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