Last month, the European Court of Justice  decided that Oriol  Junqueras should have received parliamentary immunity from the moment he won a seat in the EU chamber in last May’s election. Photograph:   Emmanuel Dunand/AFP via Getty

Jailed Catalan vice-president not allowed to take up MEP seat

 Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez and Podemos leader Pablo Iglesias after the  investiture vote in Madrid’s parliament on Tuesday. Photograph: Juan Carlos Hidalgo/EPA

Leftist party alliance means Podemos will be part of first coalition of Spain’s modern era

Podemos Party leader Pablo Iglesias and acting prime minister Pedro Sanchez. Together the two Socialist  parties are still short of a majority. Photograph: JuanJo Martin/EPA

Electoral board ruling casts doubt on plan by Catalan nationalists to support Sánchez

 Oriol Junqueras (right) leader of the Catalan Republican Left and the former vice-president of the region was one of nice Catalan leaders given jail sentences in October. Photograph: Ballesteros/EPA

ECJ rules Oriol Junqueras should have been released to take up European Parliament seat

A man burns a copy of the Spanish constitution during a protest in Barcelona. The future of Catalonia is back on the negotiating table after a year of electioneering in Spain. Photograph: Toni Albir/EPA

Talks seek to end political stalemate but pro-independence Catalans remain frustrated

Ian Gibson: ‘I feel profoundly identified with Lorca and his work and his message and his attitude to Granada.’ Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

Dublin-born Lorca biographer honoured with Granada and Irish awards

A supporter of Spain’s far-right party Vox holds a Spanish flag  ahead of last month’s general election, at Colon square in Madrid.  File photograph: Susana Vera/Reuters

The device was thrown into a shelter for foreign children in Madrid

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez poses with two supporters in Madrid. Photograph: Fernando Alvarado/EPA

ERC’s insistence on binding independence vote a likely hindrance to any agreement

The Big Brother logo. The Spanish version of the show is under fire over its handling of an alleged rape.

A court is investigating a former contestant over an alleged assault on the show in 2017

Catalan regional president Quim Torra at the courthouse in Barcelona, on Monday, ahead of his trial  over refusing to remove separatist symbols from public buildings during the parliamentary election campaign. Photograph:  Andreu Dalmau/AFP via Getty Images

But NGO says there is no evidence controversial trial was unjust

Spanish acting prime minister Pedro Sanchez and Unidas Podemos (Together We Can) leader Pablo Iglesias: the two are planning to form a governing coalition. Photograph: Sergio Perez

Socialists sign accord with Podemos two days after election as voter patience runs out

Spain’s incumbent prime minister and Socialist Party leader Pedro Sánchez in Madrid after winning Sunday’s election with 120 seats – three fewer than in the last election in April.  Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou/AFP via Getty Images

Party rules out ‘grand coalition’ with conservatives after surge by far-right Vox party

Supporters of Spanish far-right Vox party celebrate  outside the party’s headquarters  in Madrid on Sunday. Photograph:  Oscar Del Pozo/AFP via Getty Images

Vox party more than doubles its seats to become Spain’s third political force

Ciudadanos party leader Albert Rivera poses with his motorbike before leaving the party’s headquarters for Herrera de Duero to attend a rally, in Valladolid, Spain. Photograph: JJ Guillen

Catalan instability overshadows Spain’s fourth election in four years

Prime minister  Pedro Sánchez campaigning in Spain’s general election in Torremolinos on Wednesday. Photograph: Jorge Guerrero/AFP via Getty Images

PM blames exhaustion for remarks on pursuit of exiled Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont

Spain’s economy minister Nadia Calviño: “We are not afraid of dialogue, we are not afraid of engagement.” Photograph: Pablo Blazquez Dominguez/Getty Images

Spanish economy minister Nadia Calviño outines ‘proportionate’ approach to crisis

The victim was awarded €12,000 compensation for an attack the court described as “extremely intense and particularly degrading”

Catalan court rules assault cannot be deemed rape because 14-year-old victim was inebriated

Demonstrators hold a picture of jailed Catalan separatist Jordi Cuixart and wave Catalan pro-independence Estelada flags during a protest against the trial of former Catalan separatist leaders in Barcelona. Photograph:  Pau Barrena / AFP

Jordi Cuixart says his nine-year term will help his region achieve self-determination

 Spanish dictator General Franco  inaugurates a number of new rooms in an army museum, on  March 11th, 1946. File photograph: Keystone/Getty Images

Reburial of dictator’s remains has raised questions about the legacy of his regime

Relatives carry the coffin bearing the remains of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco at the Valley of the Fallen mausoleum near El Escorial, Spain, on Thursday. Photograph: Juan Carlos Hidalgo/AP

General’s body removed from state mausoleum and taken for reburial in cemetery near Madrid

Since his death in 1975, Franco’s body has lain at the Valley of the Fallen, a huge monument he built following his 1939 victory in the civil war. Photograph:  Oscar Del Pozo/AFP via Getty Images

Dictator’s remains due to be transferred from mausoleum to cemetery

A sit-down protest outside Catalan government headquarters after a weekend of unrest. Photograph: Toni Albir

Pedro Sánchez refuses to meet Quim Torra as independence movement calls for talks

Thousands of people take part in the Marches for Freedom in Barcelona on Friday amid a wave of protests against this week’s court ruling. Photograph: EPA/Alejandro Garcia

Some extreme incidents have overshadowed the movement’s many peaceful demonstrations

Demonstrators participate in a sit-in in Barcelona on Wednesday during a demonstration called by the local Republic Defence Committees. Photograph: Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty Images

Wave of protests against sedition convictions for independence leaders continues

Protesters demonstrate in Brussels after Spain’s supreme court sentenced nine separatist leaders from Catalonia, on Tuesday. Photograph: Jasper Jacobs/Belga/AFP via Getty Images

Their anger is voiced through continuing wave of demonstrations that began Monday

Protesters clash with Spanish policemen outside El Prat airport in Barcelona on October 14th as nine Catalan separatist leaders get up to 13 years in jail. Photograph: Pau Barrena/AFP

Sentences for independence leaders deemed ‘atrocity’ and provoke anger and chaos

People wearing yellow ribbons in support of jailed pro-independence politicians  in Barcelona on Monday. Photograph: Emilio Morenatti/AP

Hopes of calmer phase in Spain’s territorial crisis are dead after independence leaders jailed

Protesters  at El Prat airport in Barcelona on Monday as thousands took to the streets after Spain’s supreme court sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. Photograph: Luis Gene/AFP via Getty Images

Protesters take to streets to condemn Spanish court's `politically motivated' verdict

 Catalan pro-independence protesters gather at the Plaza d’Espanya on the eve of the expected announcement of the sentence in the trial against imprisoned Catalan political leaders. Photograph: Alejandro Garcia

Social backlash and Madrid clampdown expected as leaks suggest tough jail sentences

   Prime minister António Costa  in Lisbon on October 6th during the Portuguese general election.  Photograph: AFP via Getty Images

Socialist leader António Costa given huge endorsement with 37% of Sunday’s vote

Portugese prime minister Antonio  Costa (centre), whose lead in polls has been shrinking, making his hopes of securing a majority in Sunday’s election look increasingly fanciful. Photograph: Mario Cruz/EPA

Immigration barely figures in debate ahead of Sunday’s election

Portuguese prime minister and Socialist leader  António Costa during a campaign rally at Carlos Lopes pavilion in Lisbon. Photograph: Patricia De Melo Moreira/AFP/Getty Images

Both Iberian states face general elections. Only one can currently expect a stable outcome

Catalan regional president Quim Torra  attends a rally organised by the pro-independence party JxCat outside the Lledoners prison in Barcelona. Photograph:  Susanna Saez

Arrest of independence activists ahead of trial verdict sparks fears of backlash

 The Valley of the Fallen in Madrid, Spain, where Franco is currently buried. Photograph: Angel Diaz/EPA

Spain’s supreme court dismisses objections of dictator’s family to reburial

The basilica at the Valley of the Fallen in San Lorenzo del Escorial near Madrid, where Francisco Franco is buried.  Photograph: Javier Soriano/AFP/Getty Images

Under government plan, dictator’s body would be reburied in a less divisive site

Spain’s King Felipe VI (right) welcomes Spanish acting prime minister Pedro Sánchez to discussions at the Palace of la Zarzuela in Madrid. Photograph: Ballesteros/EPA

Voters will go to polls in November after Socialist leader unable to drum up support

 Spanish acting prime minister Pedro Sanchez:  After five months without a government, Spain faces prospect of a  snap general election. Photograph: EPA/Emilio Naranjo

King Felipe due to decide if Socialist Sánchez will face new investiture vote

People hold “Esteladas”, Catalan pro-independence flags, as they watch boats participating in a pro-independence gathering from the Pont del Petroli in Badalona. Photograph:  Josep Lago/AFP

Riven factions urged to fill streets in ‘Diada’ celebrations despite political differences

 Plácido Domingo listens to applause at the end of a concert in Szeged, Hungary, on August 28th. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/AP

String of concerts cancelled as 11 women come forward to accuse opera star

The Spanish acting prime minister and secretary general of the Socialist Party, Pedro Sanchez, with deputy secretary general Adriana Lastra, in Madrid, on Monday. Photograph: Mariscal/EPA

Socialist Sánchez has three weeks before new elections are called

Spanish migrant rescue vessel  Open Arms: anchored off Lampedusa, Italy, with 107 migrants and 19 crew members on board. Photograph: Guglielmo Mangiapane

Spain offers two safe ports but Open Arms refuses as anchored off island of Lampedusa

Dubliner Tara Tallon outside her Irish bar Pat Murphy’s in Torremolinos, where she has lived for the last 16 years. Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

The view from the Irish pub: A new summer series begins with a trip to Spain, where Costa living has lured Irish people in search (...)

Spanish caretaker prime minister Pedro Sánchez in parliament on Thursday. “There were never policy problems stopping an agreement,” he said. Photograph: Oscar Del Pozo/AFP/Getty Images

Socialists lose parliamentary vote amid disagreement with Podemos on coalition posts

Spanish acting prime minister Pedro Sanchez: main obstacle to a deal has been Podemos leader Pablo Iglesias’s insistence on a ministerial post. Photograph: Pablo Blazquez Dominguez

Socialist Sánchez seeks Podemos backing ahead of crunch votes

People pay tribute to victims in Canaletas square, Barcelona, August 18th, 2017. Fourteen people died after Younes Abouyaaquob drove a van into pedestrians on the Ramblas boulevard the previous  day. Photograph: Quique Garcia/EPA

Imam who masterminded the 2017 strike had been acting as an informant

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez (left)  with Podemos party leader Pablo Iglesias. To be sworn in again as prime minister Mr Sanchez will need Podemos  support. Photograph: Getty

Political in-fighting threatens the formation of national and Madrid administrations

Supporters of Catalan independence protest outside the European Parliament in Strasbourg on Tuesday  at the fact that three elected Catalan MEPs were not allowed to take their seats for its inaugural session. Photograph: Vincent Kessler/Reuters

Independence movement frustrated by lack of support in Europe and block on MEPs

The basilica of the Valle de los Caidos (The Valley of the Fallen) outside Madrid, where former Spanish dictator Francisco Franco is buried. Photograph:  Philippe Desmazes/AFP/Getty Images

Nuncio criticises Socialist government plan to exhume remains of dictator

Madrid’s Retiro Park in Madrid: The Socialist Party of Pedro Sánchez requires the support of other parties for Mr Sánchez to win an investiture vote.  Photograph: Juan Medina

Fragmented parliament leaves country in political limbo two months after elections

Dancers in Madrid during the 2018 Gay Pride parade. The Madrid government is being accused of censoring pro-LGBT publicity ahead of this year’s festivities. Photograph: Mario Roldan/via Getty Images

Controversial changes to poster campaign ahead of annual event

Angel Boza, a member of the group known as the ‘Wolf Pack’, who have had their jail sentences  increased from nine years to 15.  Photograph: Marcelo del Pozo/Reuters

Five men convicted last year for an attack on a woman in 2016 have sentences increased

Barcelona’s new mayor Ada Colau (centre) walks next to Jaume Collboni, Ernest Maragall and Manuel Valls after her swearing-in ceremony, at Sant Jaume square on June 15th. Photgraph: Albert Gea/Reuters

Macron alarmed as Spanish centrists Ciudadanos forms governing alliances with far right

Portraits of Catalan separatists leaders:   the case is widely seen as the most important, and politically charged,  in Spain’s modern era. Photograph: Luis  Gene/AFP/Getty Images

Politically charged court case draws to a close after four months

Catalonia’s former vice-president and elected member of parliament Oriol Junqueras: in jail since autumn 2017. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou/AFP/Getty

UN working group calls for prisoner release amid claims members have political links

Socialist party  candidate for European elections Josep Borrell and Spanish acting prime minister Pedro Sanchez address the media following election results at party headquarters in Madrid on May 27th. Photograph: Susana Vera/Reuters

Pedro Sánchez’s party dominates in elections but right takes the capital

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez: “Today we decide the future of Europe and of Spain for the next few years,” he tweeted before voting in Madrid. Photograph: Javier Soriano

Far-right Vox adds seats in EU parliament to recent local Andalucía and national wins

A municipal worker packs ballot papers for distribution to polling stations in Barcelona. Photograph: Enric Fontcuberta

Parties jostle as regional, municipal and EU elections held on same day

Jailed Catalan politician Oriol Junqueras takes the oath as a deputy during the first session of parliament following a general election in Madrid. Photograph: Angel Navarrete/Pool via Reuters

Spain’s new parliamentary speaker appeals for consensus

 Imprisoned Jordi Sanchez, MP-elect for Catalan party Junts per Catalunya, beside party spokeswoman Laura Borràs at the Spanish parliament on Monday. Photograph:  JJ Guillen/EPA

Pro-independence MPs have been on trial for rebellion but won seats in election

European brown bear  foraging in Alpine pasture in the Pyrenees.  French representatives met with Spanish experts on Friday to discuss  biodiversity issues in the Pyrenees including the challenges presented by the brown bear. Photograph: Arterra/UIG via Getty Images

Animals reintroduced into wild blamed for attacks on sheep

Jose Antonio Urrutikoetxea, also known as Josu Ternera, in Bilbao in 2002. Ternera read the communiqué which formalised Eta’s termination in May 2018. Photograph: Alfredo Aldai/EPA

Josu Ternera wanted in connection with 1987 bombing that killed 11 in Zaragoza

Spanish matador Morante de la Puebla touches the horn of a bull during a bullfight at The Maestranza bullring in the Andalusian capital of Seville.  Photograph: Marcelo del Pozo/Reuters

Matador’s curious gesture at Seville’s spring festival angers animal rights campaigners

Carles Puigdemont: hopes to lead the pro-independence Together for Catalonia-Free for Europe (JxCat) electoral ticket in the May 26th ballot, even though he is in self-imposed exile in Belgium. Photograph: Clement Rossignol

Puigdemont hopeful MEP immunity will allow him to return from exile to Spain

Spain’s prime minister and socialist party leader Pedro Sanchez shakes hands with supporters outside the party headquarters following the general election in Madrid on Sunday. Photograph: Bernat Armangue/AP

Election restores party of PM Pedro Sánchez to status as Spain’s primary political force

Supporters of the Spanish far-right Vox party follow the official results on election night in Madrid. Photograph: Oscar del Pozo

Pedro Sánchez’s party falls short of majority as Popular Party suffers historic losses

Main candidates for Spanish general election: People’s Party’s Pablo Casado, prime minister and Socialist Workers’ Party Pedro Sanchez, Ciudadanos’s Albert Rivera and Unidas Podemos’s Pablo Iglesias. Photograph: Sergio Perez

Catalan independence key issue in country’s third general election in less than four years

Popular Party candidate Pablo Casado greets a group of supporters during his visit to Pamplona, Spain, during the electoral campaign. Photograph: Inaki Porto/EPA

Popular Party’s Pablo Casado has ramped up his fiery rhetoric in a bid to become PM

Spanish centre-right Ciudadanos party leader Albert Rivera, centre, at a campaign rally in the Spanish Basque city of Renteria on Sunday ahead of the April 28th general elections. Photograph:  Ander Gillenea/AFP/Getty Images

Political right recall terrorist group, which disbanded last year

Podemos MPs Pablo Iglesias and partner Irene Montero: Podemos and its allies on the left have expressed frustration at how scandals have failed to prompt a full parliamentary investigation. Photograph: Oscar del Pozo/AFP/Getty

Podemos among targets of political spying, theft and smears as ‘state sewers’ stay active

View of Ceuta from the city’s centre. Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

Vox expected to perform well in elections in Ceuta and Melilla on anti-immigrant platform

The El Tarajal border point between Ceuta and Morocco. Photograph: Guy Hedgecoe

Young migrants in North African city of Ceuta dream of mainland Europe

A photograph taken in January of Mexico’s president Andrés Manuel López Obrador (right) welcoming Spain’s prime minister Pedro Sanchez at the National Palace in Mexico City. Photograph: Rodrigo Arangua/AFP/Getty Images.

Spanish king and Pope Francis receive letters requesting atonement

Catalan independence leaders  at the start of their trial at the supreme court in Madrid on February 12th. Photograph: Emilio Naranjo/Reuters

Intervention a notable victory for independence movement in its quest for international support

Catalan regional president Quim Torra smiles surrounded by yellow ribbons  during a plenary session at the Catalan Parliament, in Barcelona. Photograph:  EPA/ Alejandro Garcia

Electoral board ordered removal of symbols supporting prisoners

Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), funded by Spain, was the first man to circumnavigate the globe and the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Spanish academy of history claims Magellan’s feat as Spain’s, to Portugal’s dismay

A scene from the Kamikaze theatre company’s play about the notorious sexual assault of a young woman in Pamplona in 2016. Photograph: Vanessa Rábade

Hyper-realist theatre production uses original courtroom transcripts

A video-grab  of the speaker of the Catalan regional parliament, Roger Torrent, as he testified  at the supreme court in Madrid in the so-called “process” trial against 12 Catalan separatists leaders. Photograph: EPA

Officers did not use undue force during referendum, witnesses claim

Former Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy testifies during the trial of jailed Catalan separatist leaders at the supreme court in Madrid on Wednesday. Photograph: Reuters

Former prime minister Rajoy a witness in rebellion case

 Following the trial of Catalonian leaders on a screen in Barcelona, on Thursday. The trial is being held at the supreme court in Madrid. Photograph: Enric Fontcuberta/EPA

Former prime minister Mariano Rajoy is due to take the stand as a witness next week

Aer Lingus was acquired by the Willie Walsh-led IAG in 2015. Photograph: Frank Grealish

Aer Lingus and Spanish carriers Iberia and Vueling are owned by UK holding firm IAG

Íñigo Errejón, former deputy leader of Podemos, and Podemos leader  Pablo Iglesias in October 2016. File photograph: Gerard Julien/AFP/Getty Images

Infighting, policy clashes and Venezuelan crisis leave leftist party in near-chaos

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez delivers an institutional statement after an extraordinary cabinet meeting at the presidential palace in Madrid, on Friday. Photograph: Chema Moya/EPA

Popular Party leader Pablo Casado described the PM as a ‘criminal’ who has committed high treason

 Video-grab of defendant Oriol Junqueras, former Catalan regional deputy president, testifying in a   case against 12 Catalan pro-independence politicians involved in the illegal referendum in 2017. Photograph: Spanish Supreme Court’s Institute

Former vice-president Oriol Junqueras faces rebellion charge in high-profile Madrid trials

Nine of the 12 people on trial are former members of the Catalan cabinet. Photograph:  Emilio Naranjo Pool/Getty Images

Pro-independence leader Puigdemont appeals for EU to condemn Spanish legal process

Jailed catalan separatists leaders Jordi Sànchez, Oriol Junqueras, Jordi Turull, Joaquim Forn, Jordi Cuixart, Josep Rull and Raul Romeva inside Lledoners jail in Sant Joan de Vilatorrada, 50km from Barcelona. Photograph:  Omnium Cultural/AFP)

Madrid election rumours rife as rebellion and sedition court case gets under way

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez’s fragile government will need the backing of the two Catalan pro-independence parties in parliament in order to approve the 2019 budget. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou

Spain PM suffers backlash as government seeks independent figure to facilitate talks

Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez makes a statement on Venezuela at La Moncloa palace in Madrid on Monday. Photograph: Pierre-Philippe Marcou/AFP/Getty Images

Close ties with South American country make crisis a major issue in Spanish domestic politics

Pictures of jailed Catalan pro-independence leaders are held up during a demonstration in Barcelona, on Friday, in support of 12 pro-independence leaders that were transferred from Barcelona to Madrid ahead of the start of their trial. Photograph: Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty Images

Twelve independence leaders to be tried by Spanish supreme court over events in 2017

Jose Rosello and Victoria Garcia, the parents of the two-year-old boy found after falling into a deep borehole near Málaga. Photograph: Gregorio Marrero/AP

Body of two-year-old Julen Roselló Jiménez found nearly two weeks after fall near Málaga

Taxi drivers protest in Barcelona at what they claim is a failure by authorities to regulate the activities of digital ride-sharing companies. Photograph: EPA

Strike causes widespread disruption in Madrid and Barcelona

The narrow borehole in which a two-year-old fell down in Malaga. Photograph: Malaga Fire brigades/EPA

Two-year-old fell into 25cm-wide, 110m-deep hole on Sunday in Totalán, southern Spain

Spain’s far-right Vox party regional candidate Francisco Serrano delivers a speech next to leader Santiago Abascal as they celebrate results after the Andalusian regional elections in Seville. Photograph: Marcelo Del Pozo/File Photo/Reuters

Vox party ensures bullfighting and hunting get boost under new administration

The Lego A/S store in Copenhagen, Denmark, says it has to prioritise certain language versions and is not able to provide information in every language. Photograph: Luke MacGregor/Bloomberg

Companies face legal action for not using Catalan in packaging and instructions

Santiago Abascal, leader of Spain’s far-right party Vox. Vox has vowed to fight against what Mr Abascal calls “the dictatorship of the politically correct”, including a growing campaign for women’s rights. Photograph: Cristina Quicler/AFP/Getty Images

Vox’s support needed to form new right-wing government in Andalucía

Catalan pro-independence supporters take part in a demonstration under the motto “Let’s overturn the regime”, in Barcelona,  Spain, on Friday.  Photograph: Toni Albir/EPA

Worryingly for the prime minister, there are now voices of dissent within his Socialist Party

Riot police clash with supporters of Catalan independence during a protest in Barcelona on Friday. Photograph: Angel Garcia/Bloomberg

Madrid government claims trip will boost chances of Catalan solution

The Casa Llotja de Mar building in  Barcelona, where Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez is due to gather his cabinet on Friday. Photograph: Albert Gea/Reuters

A day of planned demonstrations in the city follows a year of turmoil for Catalonia

Banner of Josep Rull during a demonstration in July. The Catalan government says Rull has lost 7kg in weight since beginning a hunger strike in prison earlier this month. Photograph: Xavier Bonilla/NurPhoto via Getty Images

Interview: Imprisoned politician Josep Rull awaits trial for rebellion

Catalan president Quim Torra: accused of invoking a civil conflict that caused dozens of deaths. Photograph: Toni Albir/EPA

Quim Torra’s allusion to violent route to independence draws widespread criticism

The far-right Vox party leader Santiago Abascal: said it would “never be an obstacle” to a new government. Photograph: Luca Piergiovanni/EPA

Election leaves conservatives seeking backing of Vox to form new government

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