All sacrifices of people 100 years ago must be honoured
OPINION:Home Rule and the Dublin Lockout should be commemorated as well as the Rising
THE YEAR 2011 is the centenary of the Ulster Covenant; 2013, that of the Dublin Lockout; 2014, that of the passage into law of Home Rule; and 2016 will be the centenary of the Easter Rising. How, or whether, we commemorate events that happened 100 years ago will tell us who we are now, and who we intend to be in the future.
Commemorations are, above all, educational exercises. They inculcate values, for good or ill. They can unite, they can also divide. For this reason, I argue that, as well as commemorating 1916 in 2016, we should also commemorate the 1913 Lockout in 2013, and the passage of Home Rule in September 2014.
The men and women of 1916 were incredibly brave. They knew they were facing death. That bravery must be saluted. It inspired future generations. So too did the idealism of those involved, eloquently expressed in the writings of Patrick Pearse.
And, although it failed in its immediate goals, the Rising was a feat of organisation that showed what Irish people could do, and countered the stereotypes about Irish people that were prevalent at the time. It gave confidence to those who founded the new State five years later.
In this generation we have at last reached a political accommodation between unionism and nationalism on this island, something that eluded past generations of politicians. It eluded O’Connell, Davis, and de Valera, just as it eluded Collins and Redmond.
Nothing must be done or said now, in any of our retrospections in 2016, that would put that very recent reconciliation of unionism and nationalism at risk. While we remember what happened in Dublin in April 1916, we must not forget that other great sacrifices were made by Irish people in the same year, notably the inspiring bravery, and appalling sacrifice, at the Somme and other battles in northern France, where thousands of Irishmen died.
Many of them hoped, like Tom Kettle MP, killed the same year, the shared sacrifice in France of unionist and nationalist soldiers would heal the divisions between their communities at home.
Nor, when we commemorate the Rising, should we forget the uninvolved civilians, police, and others who had no choice in the matter, who lost their lives or livelihoods in 1916 in Dublin. Their sacrifice was all the more real for being unsought. But Irish history is not predominantly about battles. We must ensure that our commemorations do not focus only on physical force, whether on the fields of France or the streets of Dublin. I believe it is crucial, if we are to learn the right lessons from history, that we salute those who lived for Ireland, as well as those who died for it.
We must remember those who worked for decent living conditions and a more egalitarian society, people like Jim Larkin and William O’Brien. There will be an occasion to do that in 2013, the centenary of the Lockout. The Irish trade union movement and its achievements must not be eclipsed by other commemorations, as they were for many years.
We must also properly commemorate the patient, peaceful and exhausting work for Irish legislative independence of Isaac Butt, Charles Stewart Parnell, John Dillon, John Redmond and Joe Devlin.
The time to do that will come on September 18th, 2014, the centenary of the passage into law of Home Rule. The struggle for Home Rule had begun 40 years before at the conference in Dublin, attended by 800 delegates, which established the Home Rule League, yet many people today forget Home Rule was actually passed into law. Its implementation was postponed by the Great War, that was all.
Forty years’ patient and skilful parliamentary work, exploiting the weaknesses of opponents but also making judicious compromises, rallying support abroad while keeping support at home mobilised, culminated in the passage of the Act into law in 1914. It was a triumph of democratic, non-violent, politics that required the same qualities that John Hume exemplified in more recent times. The Act was for Home Rule for all of Ireland, although the possibility of temporary exclusion of some Ulster counties was mooted. After the passage of the Act the principle of Irish legislative independence had been irrevocably conceded, even by the Conservative and Unionist party of the UK, something unthinkable a few years before.
Continuance of Irish representation at Westminster under Home Rule would have meant total separation had not been achieved, but would also have meant greater Irish parliamentary influence at Westminster, which would have made discriminatory policies of the kind that occurred under Stormont up to 1972 impossible.
It is important therefore that Home Rule be commemorated, as a complement to the commemoration of Easter Week.
Today’s problems, are, in truth, more susceptible to being solved by the patient, peaceful, political methods, of the kind deployed by Irish Home Rule advocates between 1873 and 1914, or by the peaceful protests of the kind deployed by Irish workers in 1913, than by the methods used in 1916.
As I said, commemoration is a form of education for the future. That is why we should remember 1913 and 1914, as well as 1916.
Former taoiseach John Bruton is chairman of the IFSC