Rwanda still divided 20 years after genocide
UN holds day of remembrance for victims of Rwandan conflict
Today is United Nations Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Rwanda Genocide.
The country’s president, Paul Kagame, has just completed a European tour, including a visit to Áras an Uachtaráin last week. While in Ireland he donated €50,000 to help build a robot for Cork teenager Joanne O’Riordan.
When Kagame’s Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) ended the genocide by invading Rwanda in July 1994, it was the beginning of a new era. He was only two years old when his parents left Rwanda, and many in the diaspora had never set foot there before 1994.
Their return has created a new divide, between those who never left Rwanda, and “the Ugandans”, who form the elite in politics, business and the public service. English – not spoken by the majority of Rwandans – is now an official language and the country has aligned itself with English-speaking East Africa.
The tiny, mountainous state has the world’s highest percentage of women parliamentarians, with 64 per cent women in its lower house. The country has better roads and mobile telecoms penetration than most African countries but lacks natural resources.
According to a government spokesperson: “Rwanda’s long- term development goals are embedded in its Vision 2020, which seeks to transform Rwanda from a low-income agriculture-based economy to a knowledge-based service-oriented economy by 2020.”
The population’s health has vastly improved. Deaths of under-fives dropped from 230 to 55 per 1,000 live births between 1998 and 2012, while citizens are entitled to free healthcare, accounting for 24 per cent of the national budget.
About 40 per cent of that budget comes from international aid. Early in 2013 major donors such as the UK and US temporarily suspended aid in protest at Rwanda’s involvement in the conflict in Democratic Republic of Congo, in which up to 5.4 million people have died.
Hutu militias who fled Rwanda in 1994 remain in eastern Congo, and the Rwandan administration sponsored the M23 militia’s operations there until it was defeated by a beefed-up UN force last year.
Since then, Rwanda’s international relations have changed. Over the weekend, President Kagame called on France to explain its role in the genocide. France’s justice minister has withdrawn from today’s commemoration.
Last month, Pascal Simbikangwa was the first person convicted in France of participating in the genocide; and up to 20 cases await trial there.
In March, six Rwandan diplomats were expelled from South Africa after an attack on exiled Rwandan Lt Gen Kayumba Nyamwasa. Former intelligence chief Patrick Karegeya was murdered in Johannesburg in January. Both were once close to Kagame.
The Rwandan best known to many westerners – Paul Rusesabagina, on whose book the film Hotel Rwanda was based – told T he Irish Times his home in Brussels has been ransacked five times by Rwandan operatives. He left Rwanda in 1996 after an assassination attempt.
A pro-government journalist based in Kigali, Fred Mwasa, declined to be interviewed for this article due to Rusesabagina featuring in it.