Picky toddlers and foraging teens: how childhood eating patterns shape our lives

Tue, Jun 17, 2014, 01:00

It’s natural enough for parents and even grandparents to worry about how much children are eating and whether they are growing properly. We look at our children and wonder what their full potential height is.

Children aged five to 13 years appear to grow rapidly, but the real growth spurts are in the first year of life and in puberty.

It can be frustrating when you’ve been carefully measuring out the proper serving suggestions for your toddler and you are met with total ambivalence. But it’s normal that children sometimes find other things more interesting than your best homemade meatballs.

Studies have found that, while toddlers’ appetites are more unpredictable from meal to meal, they are usually good at self-regulating how much they eat over the course of a day so that their calorie intake is pretty constant.

If they are picky at lunchtime, they probably will make up for the shortfall in calories with a bigger snack or dinner.

As snacks make a critical contribution to a young child’s calorie intake, there is an opportunity to make them count nutritionally too.

Instead of the less nutritious foods often associated with adult snacking and rewarding, a toddler’s snack needs to make up for the disinterest in the meatballs at lunch.

Nestling in a cafe with your cappuccino and scone after a stint with the buggy and kids may be well earned by you, but a standard-sized brownie or muffin is not the best snack for those who have been sitting in the buggy all afternoon.

Toddlers may have an innate sense of when they are full, but children learn to overeat too.

Poor appetite in a toddler is a concern if it lasts for several meals or if your child’s growth isn’t progressing normally.

Growth monitoring, usually carried out by a public health nurse, practice nurse or GP, is a vital part of a toddler’s health assessment and nutritional status.

In the 1980s, Prof David Barker’s work on the foetal and infant origins of adult disease led to further research examining the effect of both slow and excessive weight gain in infancy.

Growth patterns

A baby’s growth pattern during the first year of life is strongly related to health and risk of disease in adulthood. A Helsinki study in 2001 of more than 4,600 men demonstrated that low weight gain during the first year of life was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, independent of birth weight.

Babies who fail to thrive are shown to have a delayed progression to solid food, poorer appetites and to eat a narrower range of foods. Excessive weight gain in the first year of life is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease.

Monitoring growth reassures most parents that their child’s growth is on track. For others, it’s a good way of highlighting potentially helpful changes to feeding patterns.

Measurements such as length for age, weight for age, length for weight and head circumference provide essential information on the growth and nutritional status of children. A once-off single measurement is meaningless and serial measurements are necessary over time.

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