More to those Vikings than swords and hoards

Vikings: Life and Legend exhibition at the British Museum proves the famous seafarers weren’t always the bad guys

Thu, Apr 10, 2014, 01:00

Part of the Hiddensee hoardThe Vikings may have been the best boatbuilders of the 10th century, but their personal hygiene left a lot to be desired. “They are the filthiest of God’s creatures,” wrote Ahmad ibn Fadlan, an Arab diplomat whose language was far from diplomatic. They never washed after eating, he continues, nor after sex, though they did comb their hair a lot.

The Vikings have always had a bad press – understandably, given their reputation as raiders. A comprehensive exhibition at the British Museum in London, Vikings: L ife and L egend , goes some way towards rehabilitating them. After four hours learning about swords and hoards, shipbuilding and seafaring, you might just conclude the Vikings weren’t always the bad guys.

Take the 10th-century atrocity at the English port of Weymouth, when a group of young Vikings were set upon by Anglo-Saxon locals, who stripped and decapitated them before dumping their bodies in a mass grave. There they are at the British Museum, dismembered skeletons with their skulls close by, the first time this important find, made in 2009, has been on public view.

Why important? Because tests show they were, in fact, not Anglo-Saxons but Scandinavians, one of them possibly from the Arctic Circle, all aged from their late teens to their mid 20s, and with a diet rich in protein. Thus does another bit of the jigsaw fall into place.

Viking helmet and jawboneEnticing stores
Although Christian England and Ireland, with their enticing stores of church silver, were the focus of many raids, the adventurous Vikings had their eyes on more distant horizons, and so the exhibition takes us steadily eastwards all the way to the Volga, where ibn Fadlan encountered them.

There they settled and mingled with local Slavs to form the people known as the Rus, the precursors of the Russians. Here, ibn Fadlan noted the Vikings built huge timber halls for their extended families. On display is a fine wooden “feasting bucket”, big enough to hold a gallon of whatever you’re having yourself – which, back home, was mostly mead.

And it comes with a warning: “The more a man drinks the less he knows about his own intentions.” There is also advice about table manners. “A man should not clutch his cup but moderately drink his mead.” Reassuringly, we learn no one will think any the less of you should you go to bed early.

As an Arab, ibn Fadlan came from a group of people whose highly organised society and advanced culture left the Vikings standing. Even better, the Arabs had a trading network reaching to Istanbul, Samarkand and Mecca, and it was this that attracted the Vikings, who traded vigorously, bringing home, by fair and foul means, pottery, carved ivory from the Byzantium era, trophies found along the Silk Road, and lots of coinage.

The Vikings coveted the Arab monetary system, and among the flood of coins that flow through this exhibition is one dated circa 800, during the rule of Haroun al Rashid. The coin bears the Islamic phrase Allahu al-Akhbar, and is a copy of one minted in Baghdad, a clear demonstration of the fact that, although they might not have understood Arabic, the Vikings were skilled copyists.