Adare Manor: When it was offered for sale in 1980, taoiseach Charles Haughey received many representations from people who believed the State should consider acquiring it. Photo: Murray Consultants

Speculation that Ireland might host a historic summit between US president George Bush Snr and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev encouraged Adare Manor (...)

Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and taoiseach Charley Haughey after their meeting at Shannon Airport in April 1989. Photograph: Paddy Whelan

The US feared the Russians could be plotting an undercover Cold War spy base in a disused Cork dockyard, newly declassified government documents sugge(...)

When almost a million people gathered on Prague’s Wenceslas Square and much of the country joined a general strike, it was clear that political authority had changed. Photograph: Lubomir Kotek/AFP via Getty Images

Tomas Halik admits questioning the scope of papal infallibility during a private Vatican dinner with Pope John Paul II in November 1989, when the pont(...)

In this picture taken on November 10, 1989 in Berlin, West-Berliners break the Berlin Wall with hammers and crosses. - The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, when thousands of Germans joyfully danced atop its graffiti-covered remains, to some heralded the “end of history” in a globalised world. Photograph by: AFP/Getty

Chancellor Angela Merkel urged Europe to fight harder for its values as Germany marked 30 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall on Saturday. “The v(...)

Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, speaks with an assembly line employee as Volkswagen  begins mass-production of the VW ID.3 electric automobile in Zwickau, Germany. Photograph: Krisztian Bocsi/Bloomberg

Expectations were high on Monday when Angela Merkel arrived in Saxony for a four-wheeled celebration of German unity. The entire board of German auto (...)

Werner Herzon meets his hero Mikhail Gorbachev to whom he explains most Germans have “overwhelming approval for you personally”.

Writing in Roller-Coaster, his recent history of the post-war years, Ian Kershaw breaks with the historian’s habitual caution about personality politi(...)

Russian president Vladimir Putin: has encouraged a return to the cold war-era view of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact as a response to the appeasement of Hitler by Britain, France and other European states. Photograph: Alexey Nikolsky/Sputnik

Five states that were victims of an infamous Nazi-Soviet pact have urged Europe to fight disinformation and attempts to rewrite history, 80 years afte(...)

Hungarian border guard officer Arpad Bella (centre) on August 19th, 1989, when more than 600 East Germans pushed their way past his men and into Austria. He chose not to shoot on the crowd and let them pass in one of the landmark moments of the fall of the Iron Curtain. Photograph: Tamás Lobenwein. Courtesy Paneuropean Picnic’ 89 Foundation

It is nearly 30 years since Arpad Bella, then a border guard officer in communist Hungary, made a split-second decision that nudged the course of hist(...)

 Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev  and US president Ronald Reagan  signing  the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty in the White House on December 8th,  1987. Photograph:  Reuters

The US is poised to increase its stock of intermediate missiles as the country formally pulled out of a long-standing nuclear treaty on Friday. The m(...)

US president Ronald Reagan and Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty in the White House on December 8th, 1987. Photograph: Reuters

The US has withdrawn from a critical 1987 nuclear arms control treaty with Russia after Moscow refused to destroy a new intermediate-range missile tha(...)

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