Pavlov sounded a metronome as he gave a dog food. After a while the dog salivated on hearing the metronome, even when no food was present. Photograph: Nick Vedros/Image Bank

We are approaching the 171st anniversary (September 26th) of the birth of famous Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov did pi(...)

Undated handout photo issued by the NZBCA Archives of a 617 Squadron plane in the air. Photograph: NZBCA Archives/PA

The last surviving Dambusters pilot has died in New Zealand. He was 96. Les Munro had a “special aura” and was always regarded as “invincible”, his f(...)

In 1971 president Richard Nixon and the US Congress declared a war on cancer. Since then the federal government has spent more than €80 billion fighti(...)