Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), funded by Spain, was the first man to circumnavigate the globe and the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

For most of their modern history Spain and Portugal have been courteous neighbours, but a historians’ dispute over a key detail of Golden Age history (...)

Senhora da Rocha, near Armação de Pêra in the Algarve, Portugal. Photograph: iStock

Jane Shortall was born in Ireland then lived in south west France for years, where she wrote about her life for various Irish, English and US publicat(...)

John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown’s transatlantic aircraft crossed the Atlantic between St John’s, Newfoundland and Clifden, Ireland on June 15th, 1919. (Photograph: SSPL/Getty Images

It is probably easier to look back and weigh the importance of a particular scientific achievement of the past than to predict how science will influe(...)

The path a nation will take – its destiny, some might say – can be strongly suggested, if not entirely dictated, by its geography. Thus Portuga(...)