US-based Muslim cleric Fethullah Gülen, who the Turkish government blames for an attempted coup last month. He denies involvement. Photograph: Selahattin Sevi/AFP/Getty Images

Turkish police raided the country’s biggest courthouse and two other halls of justice in Istanbul yesterday, detaining dozens of judicial staff as par(...)

The Turkish Oncupinar crossing gate near Kilis. Photograph: Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images

Abdo Shakh quietly sips tea in the corner of a house just north of the Oncupinar crossing on the Turkish-Syrian border. He is one of hundreds of resi(...)

Syrian refugees wait before the Oncupinar crossing gate near the town of Kilis, in south-central Turkey. Photograph: Getty Images

As the sun inches towards the centre of the sky and noon approaches, the sound of the call to prayer ripples through the air. Here, on the Turkish-Syr(...)

Syrian refugees at the Turkish Oncupinar crossing gate, near Kilis. About 30,000 Syrians have gathered there, having fled attacks on Aleppo. Photograph: Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images

In the southern reaches of Turkey, the war in Syria no longer seems like a conflict in a far-away land. Just over the border in the town of Azaz, th(...)

Syrians fleeing the northern embattled city of Aleppo wait for tents in Bab-Al Salam, near the Turkish border crossing. Photograph: Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images

The arrival of 40,000 refugees at the Turkish border north of Aleppo is a sign of how dramatically the dynamic of the conflict has shifted since Russi(...)

A family rides a motorbike as Syrians flee the northern embattled city of Aleppo on Saturday. Photograph: Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images

Tens of thousands of Syrians sought refuge in Turkey on Saturday, while those who have already made the crossing waited and worried about the fate of(...)

Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan  places carnations as he visits the site of the suicide bomb attack that killed 10 German tourists in central Istanbul. Photograph: Murat Cetinmuhurdar/Reuters

For Syrians who have fled the war for the relative safety of Turkey, life looks set to get worse. The suicide bomber who killed 10 German tourists in (...)

An Islamic State loyalist in the terror group’s de factor capital, Raqqa, in Syria, in June 2014. Photograph: Reuters

The US-led coalition fighting Islamic State has begun preparing to open a major front in northeastern Syria, aiming to put pressure on Raqqa, the terr(...)

Turkey’s prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu chairing a security meeting in Ankara. Photograph: Hakan Goktepe/AFP/Getty Images

Turkey will take “all necessary measures” to protect public order and national security following attacks by Islamic State and Kurdish militants, the (...)