When  two countries  share a common border the absence of a customs union necessitates customs checks. Photograph: Niall Carson/PA Wire

Robert Shiller is a Nobel prize-winning economist, famous in part thanks to his book Irrational Exuberance, which successfully predicted the bursting (...)

Anti-Brexit campaigners Borders Against Brexit protest outside Government Buildings in Dublin earlier this year. Photograph: Clodagh Kilcoyne/Reuters

Border customs checks after the UK leaves the European Union could cost £1 billion a year and cause delays for goods being shipped in both directions,(...)