French president Charles de Gaulle (centre)  in Brazzaville, French Equatorial Africa (modern-day Republic of the Congo) in 1958.

France’s Fifth Republic was born 60 years ago on Tuesday, when General Charles de Gaulle published a new constitution. It was the beginning of French (...)

 Claude Lanzmann, the journalist and film director whose obsession with the Nazi genocide brought forth ‘Shoah’. Photograph: Todd Heisler/The New York Times

Claude Lanzmann, the journalist and film director whose obsession with the Nazi genocide brought forth Shoah, a groundbreaking film that relived the a(...)

Belfast’s Westlink dual carriageway. “A motorway between Belfast and Derry might have a weak financial case but as a way to knit Northern Ireland together it would have been unsurpassed.”

In the week leading up to Stormont talks, which restarted yesterday, the topic that captured imaginations in Northern Ireland was a bridge to Scotland(...)

 French president Emmanuel Macron: At the Anglo-French summit on Thursday, he is expected to bring ideas for military co-operation. Photograph: Francois Mori/EPA

Call it grandiloquence but, with Angela Merkel to his east and Theresa May to his west, Emmanuel Macron’s manner of speech offers a break from all tha(...)

French president Emmanuel Macron gives a statement at the Élysée Palace in Paris, France. Photograph: Ludovic Marin/EPA

When French presidents talk about Europe, their message often makes more sense if you substitute every reference to “European Union” with “France”. (...)

Israeli prime minister Benyamin Netanyahu and French president Emmanuel Macron react after making a joint declaration at the Elysee Palace in Paris, France, on Sunday. Photograph: Stephane Mahe/EPA

President Emmanuel Macron continued his quest to tame some of the world’s most intractable leaders on Sunday, when he invited Israeli prime minister B(...)

The coffin of late former chancellor Helmut Kohl during military honors after a Mass at the cathedral in Speyer. Photograph: Amelie Querfurth/AFP/Getty Images

Germany bid farewell on Saturday to Helmut Kohl, the former chancellor who steered his country toward reunification in 1990 and whose tireless efforts(...)

German reunification: Helmut Kohl at a rally in 1990 for the first free elections in East Germany. Photograph: Michael Urban/Reuters

Helmut Kohl helped to end Europe’s postwar division but never shrugged off a prickly reputation for causing personal rifts. Now the late architect of (...)

 Helmut Kohl in 2000. “We mourn,” Kohl’s Christian Democratic Union party (CDU) tweeted with a picture of the former chancellor. Photograph:  Attila Kisbenedek/EPA

Angela Merkel has led tributes to Helmut Kohl, the former chancellor and her political mentor, as a “stroke of luck” for both German and European unit(...)

Socialists’ downfall: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis, the party’s secretary general, was among the electoral losers. Photograph: Geoffroy Van Der Hasselt/AFP/Getty

“The Berezina of the Socialist Party” was the term widely used to describe the defeat of the former ruling party in Sunday’s French legislative electi(...)

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