Pedestrians pass a neon sign displaying the latest Russian ruble euro dollar exchange rate outside a currency exchange bureau in Moscow, Russia, on Tuesday. The rouble sank to a record, deepening Russia’s currency crisis, as people scrambled to convert their money into dollars after a surprise interest-rate increase failed to shore up investor confidence. (Photograph: Andrey Rudakov/Bloomberg)

Russia has failed to halt the collapse of the rouble, leaving president Vladimir Putin facing a full-blown currency crisis that could weaken his iron (...)

ladimir Putin at the APEC CEO Summit at the China National Convention Centre in Beijing, November 10, 2014. According to a European security group, Russia is engaging in “dangerous brinkmanship” toward Nato. Photograph: Reuters/China Daily

Russia is engaging in “dangerous brinkmanship” toward Nato and Nordic nations in its military moves with almost 40 incidents of incursions and close e(...)

A light shines during the citizens’ festival at Brandenburg Gate. Photograph: Kay Nietfeld/EPA 1:50

Tens of thousands gathered in central Berlin tonight as Germany marked the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall - an event that led to t(...)

German Chancellor Angela Merkel gives her speech today in front of a photograph depicting the opening of the inner-city border at Bernauer Strasse in 1989. Photograph: Soeren Stache/EPA

The fall of the Berlin Wall 25 years ago, heralding the end to the Cold War between East and West, showed the world “dreams can come true” and shou(...)

Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev stands on a balcony overlooking the ‘Pariser Platz’ Square with the landmark Brandenburg Gate (background) in sight, in Berlin. Mr Gorbachev, the last leader of the Soviet Union, is one of the only dignitaries attending the weekend’s ceremonies marking the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall on 09 November 1989. Photograph: Jens Kalaene/EPS

Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev says tensions between the major powers have put the world “on the brink of a new Cold War”.He accuses the West,(...)

Key players: former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbatchev, former US president George Bush and former German chancellor Helmut Kohl

329 days. Eleven months between the opening of the Wall and the “day of German unity”, the day when the two Germanys came together formally as (...)

ROMANIA: civilians cross Bucharest on a truck waving flags where the communist symbol has been cut off
1989’s other revolutions
  • Europe
  • November 6, 2014, 06:00

At a remove of 25 years, many people remember the collapse of communism in eastern Europe starting with the fall of the Berlin Wall.But by the time th(...)

German-born US historian Fritz Stern speaks during a commemoration service for the 1944 attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler by German officers

Fritz Stern has been an essential voice in German life for decades, though he fled the country as a 12-year-old boy. The historian, essayist and autho(...)

Thousands of young East Berliners on the Berlin Wall, near the Brandenburg Gate on November 11th, 1989.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9th, 1989 was the most dramatic in an extraordinary sequence of events that led to the collapse of communism i(...)

Helmut Kohl and Angela Merkel in Bonn in 1992: “At state dinners she mooched around so much that, more than once, I had to tell her to pull herself together.” Photograph: Thomas Imo/Photothek via Getty Images

Former German chancellor Helmut Kohl has said Angela Merkel, his protégée turned rival, was so inexperienced when he plucked her from obscurity in 199(...)