Syria’s president, Bashar al-Assad. Western powers want his removal from office as part of a Syrian peace deal. Photograph: EPA/Syrian Arab News Agency

“Assad must go,” is the constant refrain from US president Barack Obama, French president François Hollande, British prime minister David Cameron and (...)

Cairo university students and members of the Muslim Brotherhood shout slogans against the military in a demonstration in Cairo in October, 1913. Many young members of the Brotherhood blame their elders for bungling the Arab Spring revolt and their chance to govern.  Photograph: Mohamed Abd El Ghany/Reuters

A veteran leader of the Muslim Brotherhood was so alarmed by the rising calls for violence from the group’s youth that he risked arrest to urge the mo(...)

The minaret of the Mamluk 14th century Madrasa of Sarghatmish is seen through the crenellations of the Tulunid 9th century Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo. Photograph: David Silverman/Getty Images

Over the past century, the Middle East has been racked by nearly constant conflict, but the frontiers of the region’s modern states have remained f(...)

Shiite volunteers brandish weapons at a tribal meeting in Baghdad. Photograph: Ayman Oghanna/The New York Times

The cross-border conflict waged by the radical Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (Isis) is blowback from a policy of promoting fundamentalists that h(...)

Egyptian presidential candidate Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. While local polls show Sisi to be the overwhelming popular choice, a recent opinion survey conducted by the Pew Research Centre showed only 54 per cent of Egyptians favoured him. Photograph: Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Calm and relaxed ahead of the presidential poll, Cairo is festooned with banners bearing the portrait of candidate Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, the presumed (...)

People celebrate in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on Wednesday after Egypt’s army chief Abdel Fattah al-Sisi declared his candidacy for the presidential election. Photograph: Asmaa Waguih/Reuters

A Muslim Brotherhood leader yesterday threatened continuing unrest in response to the presidential candidacy of Egypt’s former army chief Abdel Fat(...)

Saudi Arabia’s foreign minister Prince Saud al-Faisal attends  an Arab foreign ministers emergency meeting to discuss the Syrian crisis  at the Arab League headquarters in Cairo yesterday. Photograph: Reuters

Saudi Arabia has threatened to blockade neighbouring Qatar by air, land and sea unless Doha cuts ties with Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, closes g(...)

In the first speech of his Egyptian presidential campaign, Hamdeen Sabbahi claimed to carry the flame for Egypt’s revolution. Photograph: EPA/Khaled Elfiqi

The veteran leftwinger Hamdeen Sabbahi has become the first candidate to officially enter the race to succeed Mohamed Morsi as Egyptian president, e(...)

Ousted Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi stands in a cage in a courthouse in Cairo during his trial. Photograph: Egyptian interior ministry/via Reuters

Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood has condemned the decision of a Cairo appeal court to uphold the ruling banning the movement and its affiliates and calling(...)

A portrait of Mohammed Badie,  left, spiritual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, behind the face of former president Hosni Mubarak, in graffiti on the walls of Cairo’s Tahrir Square, on Tuesday.  Photograph: Bryan Denton/The New York Times

The Muslim Brotherhood is fighting for its life, once again, against the modern secular Egyptian state founded by Muhammad Ali Pasha during the first (...)