The minaret of the Mamluk 14th century Madrasa of Sarghatmish is seen through the crenellations of the Tulunid 9th century Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo. Photograph: David Silverman/Getty Images

Over the past century, the Middle East has been racked by nearly constant conflict, but the frontiers of the region’s modern states have remained f(...)

Shiite volunteers brandish weapons at a tribal meeting in Baghdad. Photograph: Ayman Oghanna/The New York Times

The cross-border conflict waged by the radical Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (Isis) is blowback from a policy of promoting fundamentalists that h(...)

Egyptian presidential candidate Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. While local polls show Sisi to be the overwhelming popular choice, a recent opinion survey conducted by the Pew Research Centre showed only 54 per cent of Egyptians favoured him. Photograph: Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Calm and relaxed ahead of the presidential poll, Cairo is festooned with banners bearing the portrait of candidate Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, the presumed (...)

People celebrate in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on Wednesday after Egypt’s army chief Abdel Fattah al-Sisi declared his candidacy for the presidential election. Photograph: Asmaa Waguih/Reuters

A Muslim Brotherhood leader yesterday threatened continuing unrest in response to the presidential candidacy of Egypt’s former army chief Abdel Fat(...)

Saudi Arabia’s foreign minister Prince Saud al-Faisal attends  an Arab foreign ministers emergency meeting to discuss the Syrian crisis  at the Arab League headquarters in Cairo yesterday. Photograph: Reuters

Saudi Arabia has threatened to blockade neighbouring Qatar by air, land and sea unless Doha cuts ties with Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, closes g(...)

In the first speech of his Egyptian presidential campaign, Hamdeen Sabbahi claimed to carry the flame for Egypt’s revolution. Photograph: EPA/Khaled Elfiqi

The veteran leftwinger Hamdeen Sabbahi has become the first candidate to officially enter the race to succeed Mohamed Morsi as Egyptian president, e(...)

Ousted Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi stands in a cage in a courthouse in Cairo during his trial. Photograph: Egyptian interior ministry/via Reuters

Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood has condemned the decision of a Cairo appeal court to uphold the ruling banning the movement and its affiliates and calling(...)

A portrait of Mohammed Badie,  left, spiritual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, behind the face of former president Hosni Mubarak, in graffiti on the walls of Cairo’s Tahrir Square, on Tuesday.  Photograph: Bryan Denton/The New York Times

The Muslim Brotherhood is fighting for its life, once again, against the modern secular Egyptian state founded by Muhammad Ali Pasha during the first (...)

A soldier holds his weapon as he stands on an armoured personnel carrier positioned outside the state-run television station in Cairo. The military shut down all the Egyptian television networks that supported president Mohamed Morsi on the night he was ousted from office. Photograph: Louafi Larbi/Reuters

Amid an international outcry over a bloody crackdown, the new government named by Gen Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi is putting concerted pressure on the only (...)

Anti-Morsi protesters chant slogans during a mass protest to support the army in Cairo’s Tahrir Square yesterday. A banner stretched across an entrance to the square read: “The people, the source of all power, mandate the army and the police to purge terrorism” Photograph: Reuters/Mohamed Abd El Ghany

Five people died in clashes in Alexandria and dozens were injured across Egypt as hundreds of thousands poured into streets and squares to support and(...)