Friedrich Nietzsche: “Pure spirit is pure lie.” Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

With the approach of the 500th anniversary of the year traditionally taken to mark the start of the Reformation (1517), it might be worth reflecting a(...)

When shopping for values, Aristotle recommended applying ‘practical wisdom’. Photograph: Dara Mac Dónaill

Dostoevsky’s famous saying “If there is no God, everything is permitted” has been disproved by secular civilisation. You don’t need God to have val(...)

Friedrich Nietzsche tells us that: “Words are but symbols for the relations of things to one another and to us; nowhere do they touch upon the absolut(...)