Emmy Noether: she was one of the great creative mathematical geniuses, but was unable to secure a paid teaching post in her native Germany

The number of women who have excelled in mathematics is lamentably small. Many reasons may be given, foremost being that the rules of society well (...)

In art and architecture, symmetry is often used for its aesthetic appeal. In science, it provides insight into the properties of physical systems. Photograph: Thinkstock

In the arts, symmetry is intimately associated with aesthetic appeal. In science, it provides insight into the properties of physical systems. (...)