‘Juncker’s initiative seeks to wrest power back to the Commission by invoking European values and citizenship norms. His argument that these values express the preferences of most Europeans echoes voices of leadership from other leaders such as Angela Merkel (above) and seems to resonate strongly with changing public opinion throughout the continent.’ Photograph:  Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Karl Kraus, the brilliant and iconoclastic Viennese journalist, used the front page of his paper Die Fackel in 1920 to print the names of those who ha(...)

Xi Jinping, China’s president,  makes the point that while China may look like a colossus to outsiders, its development is in fact highly uneven and on average its income remains a fraction of that in the more developed world. Photograph: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg

The shudder on world stock markets this week following China’s devaluation of its currency has exposed a deeper fear: that its political leaders will (...)

 A dinghy overcrowded with Syrian migrants approaches a beach on the Greek island of Kos this week after crossing a part of the Aegean sea from Turkey to Greece. Photograph: Milos Bicanski/Getty Images

The appalling realities of mass migration from Syria’s civil war have been highlighted in images from Kos, where thousands of refugees are now arrivin(...)

Michael D Higgins: “We need to confront the hegemonic ethic of individualism and insatiable consumption at the roots of our behaviour and replace it with a new thinking”. The President was speaking at  the Consciouness Summit in Paris.  Photograph: EPA/ETIENNE LAURENT

Two news items about climate change illustrate how public opinion is becoming more aware of the dangers in a year of major choices about how to mitiga(...)

Bail-out, bail twine ... the Greek flag is bound up with a parcel string to illustrate ‘bailout package” in Kaufbeuren, Germany. Photograph: EPA/Karl-Josef Hildenbrand.

Does the Greek crisis represent a decisive moment in European integration, turning away from a Europe of equals and resurrecting 19th century relation(...)

UK Labour Party  ‘still in deep shock after its defeat and the UK’s future figures little in its current leadership contest’ ....   contender Andy Burnham (right) speaks as fellow contenders  listen during a hustings Photograph: Joe Giddens/PA Wire

‘Can we still save the union?” Stephen Heseler asks the question in a pamphlet published by the Federal Trust in London, entitled The United Kingdom, (...)

‘On a high  turnout Turkish voters  endorsed a political alternative by bringing a new Kurdish-based party into parliament on a multicultural programme, thereby depriving Erdogan’s party of its governing majority.’ Above, officials count votes after the close of voting in Diyarbakir, Turkey.  Photograph: EPA/SEDAT SUNA

“Hope is on the way”. This slogan used by the Greek governing party Syriza in its election campaign last January is tattered six months later as Greec(...)

‘Wellington was born Arthur Wesley (later changed to Wellesley) in what is now the Merrion hotel, Dublin, in 1769. His family were gentry near Trim in Co Meath, having inherited land there.’ Photograph:  Hulton Archive/Getty Images

“Had I chosen to fight in Ireland instead of Egypt, what would England be today?” Napoleon’s comment from exile in St Helena about his decision in May(...)

‘This contradictory aspect of equality led Karl Marx (above) to argue, when criticising the Gotha programme adopted by the German Workers’ Party in 1875, that the equal rights it proclaimed were in fact constrained by their emergence in capitalist society judged by the amount of labour they supply.’ Photograph:  Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

“Must equal necessarily mean identical?” asked a letter writer to this newspaper on Tuesday. The question goes to the heart of ambiguities associated (...)

‘Robert Schuman’s declaration 65 years ago today proposed the pooling of French and German coal and steel production so as to make any future war between them “not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible”.’ Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

‘Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto soli(...)