In the whole-class teaching method, the teacher stands at the blackboard, teaches the whole class the established body of knowledge, tests the children with questions and ensures a disciplined class environment. This type of teaching was the norm in Ireland until the 1960s. Above, schoolchildren in the west of Ireland in 1955. Photograph: Three Lions/Getty Images

Whole-class teaching, in which childern learn to use their long-term memory, has been abandoned for a more personalised, naturalis(...)

Bad news for those who regularly run marathons or ultra-marathons: such running can damage your health. Photograph: Thinkstock

Even a little regular exercise can boost your health, but beware: pushing your body too hard is damaging

‘In December a well-argued letter to The Irish Times by David Walsh took the field of women’s studies to task for promoting the ideological notion that gender is a social construct in the face of scientific evidence that biology plays a prominent role’

A study argues that more diversity among academics would improve social psychology research

The former home of George Boole in Cork. Photograph: Michael Mac Sweeney/Provision

The research of the ‘father of pure mathematics’ was significantly motivated by his faith

Our capacity for co-operation has deep evolutionary roots and scientists have been studying this in chimpanzees and bonobos (above), our closest living relatives. Photograph: Thinkstock

Studies suggest that co-operation played a far bigger role than aggression, but is that to underestimate our bloodlust?

Recent research suggests that mindfulness meditation can make pain less bothersome to those who practise it. Photograph: Thinkstock

Meditation can be helpful, but its efficacy depends on the ends for which it is used

Photograph: Thinkstock

Resuscitation medicine can now revive people who have been dead for hours, and some of them have intriguing stories to tell

As grasslands cover nearly 60 per cent of the Irish landscape, the quantity of carbon dioxide sequestered annually in Irish soils is enormous but is not allowed to be factored in under current accounting procedures. Photograph: Thinkstock

Research indicates carbon emissions from grasslands are much smaller than current calculations

The culpably faulty study that claimed to find a link between MMR vaccination and autism scared many parents, who stopped vaccinating their children. Photograph: Thinkstock

Loss of public trust will be the most serious consequence if misconduct is not eliminated

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