A propaganda poster during the cultural revolution is displayed at the Propaganda Art Museum in Shanghai, China, May 17 2016. The Propaganda Art Museum in Shanghai collect reproductions and original pieces of propaganda posters during the Cultural Revolutions. Photograph: Raul Ariano/NurPhoto via Getty Images

World View: Cultural Revolution and Sykes-Picot pact retain a grip on the present

Field Marshal General Douglas Haig: never more exposed were ruling classes and their socially remote, myopic, incompetent generals, exemplified by Haig. Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The battle of the Somme was a new kind of battle, in a new kind of war, and overall it would claim some 1,000,000 casualties

The Nordic Battlegroup is an EU battlegroup comprising Sweden, Finland, Norway, Ireland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Photograph: AFP

Document’s untimely leak plays into Brexiters fears of EU subsuming Nato role

The Musudan rocket is understood to have a range of at least 1,864 miles, long enough to strike, among other targets, US military bases in Guam.  EPA/KCNA SOUTH KOREA OUT

China and South Korea have an interest in short-term stability in North Korea

Donald Trump has largely rewritten the social media rule book and remains, by far, the most tweeted-about candidate. Photograph: Ralph Freso/Getty Images

The US election has been defined by how candidates communicate with voters

Charlie Chaplin and Jackie Coogan in The Kid: Chaplin was thought to be earning £130,000 a year in 1916. Photograph: AP Photo/File

"If in 1916 Shakespeare would “spell bankruptcy” in a British capital, while Mr Charles Chaplin earns £130,000 a year, we must, fo(...)

President Michael D Higgins: hosted a reception to mark the reorganisation of the Irish Citizen Army. Photograph: Clodagh Kilcoyne/Reuters

A tourist bought a boat ticket to New York in 1916 without realising she needed a passport

1916/2016: A miscellany

US president Barack Obama has gone out of his way to pick a nominee whose centrism makes him difficult for Republicans to oppose. Photograph: Evan Vucci/AP

The nomination of moderate Merrick Garland for Supreme Court is a shrewd move

Countess Markievicz: her speech in Cork caused comment in the House of Commons.

Irish regiments figure in the list of military honours

Countess Constance Markievicz as a captain in the Irish Citizen Army.

Other reports that day include that "the Austrians had dropped here and there a quantity of sweets, some wrapped in red and blue p(...)

A plaque commemorating the 1916 leaders who were executed in Kilmainham Gaol. Photograph: Frank Miller

Irish Republican Brotherhood militants were a diehard lot motivated by heroic failure and blood sacrifice

US Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump has indicated he would move to curb media freedom if elected. Photograph: Jeff Kowalsky/EPA

Republican frontrunner has made it clear he will curb media freedom if elected

Celebrating  election victory, Paul Murphy (right),  Socialist Party/AAA-PBP, said he was not convinced  SF leadership was committed to building a “left” that does not prop up right-wing parties. Photograph: Cyril Byrne

Fractious and divided, alphabet soup of left-wing parties is unlikely to disappear soon

Fine Gael won a 10 per cent seat bonus at the last general election – in other words ten per cent more seats than their vote warranted in percentage terms. Photograph: PA

Patrick Smyth on how our STV system works and why all preferences should be used

US Supreme Court justice will be remembered for his bluntness, humour and his often vicious sarcasm

The late US Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia. Photograph: The Irish Times

He sought to interpret the Constitution as it was understood at the time of its adoption

David Cameron: The erosion of the principle of free movement and equal treatment of EU citizens is the price we are being asked to pay to keep the UK in the EU. Photograph: Mathias Loevgreen Bojesen/Scanpix

UK’s dubious case may lead to other member states moving to curb migrant rights

The UK Bar Coucil pleading on behalf of Walter  specifically refers to the danger of executing the innocent, exemplified in the capital convictions in the Birmingham Six and Guildford Four cases. Photograph: Joe St Leger/The Irish Times

Abolitionists are now pinning hopes on the case of Pennsylvania woman Shonda Walter

Jaroslaw Kaczynski the leader of Poland’s rulking party. He may well be right to suspect that Brussels is all bluster.  REUTERS/Agencja Gazeta/Slawomir

The European Commission is set to hold an ‘orientation’ debate on new laws in Poland that rein in both its constitutional court a(...)

The remains of a SUV involved in the December 3rd attack in San Bernardino, California. There are reports in the US that in the wake of Paris and San Bernardino that some people are again avoiding public places and gun sales are soaring. Photograph: Mario Anzuoni/Reuters

Amercians are 59 times more likely to die of autoerotic asphyxiation than in terrorist attack

Attempts within Republicanism to mount an anti-Trump campaign appear unlikely to succeed - the party has been hijacked by its own members. REUTERS/Randall Hill

Most analysts still insist that Trump’s lead in the Republican field will pass as the race gets more serious. But he has undoubted(...)

William Thomas Cosgrave (1880-1965), Irish politician, at the time of the fights for independence. Photograph: Getty Images

‘The dragons of the past have not died and were only sleeping. Recent events have stirred them’ – George (AE) Russell

Non discrimination law challenged over fears transgender women will use ladies toilets

Refugees from Syria near the Austrian-German border. German official attitudes also owe a good deal to enlightened self-interest. Photograph: EPA/Armin Weigel

Hungary and Poland will see their populations fall by 8 and 6 per cent respectively by 2035

“Thousands of low-level Farc fighters would be granted an amnesty for “political” crimes.”

The hope is that, like Northern Ireland, Colombia will swallow the bitter pill of “amnesty” in order to grasp the bigger prize o(...)

‘If Obama vetoes a resolution of disapproval, it will take 34 senators to override his veto and block the agreement. That means opponents have to find an unlikely 11 more Democrats. Photograph:  REUTERS

‘While several of the Republican presidential hopefuls have vowed they would repudiate the deal on day one of their presidency, hi(...)

Republican presidential candidates from left, Chris Christie, Marco Rubio, Ben Carson, Scott Walker, Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Mike Huckabee, Ted Cruz, Rand Paul, and John Kasich take the stage for the first Republican presidential debate at the Quicken Loans Arena, Thursday, August 6th, 2015, in Cleveland. Photograph: AP Photo/Andrew Harnik

Patrick Smyth: Battle for Republican candidacy now heads for the ‘invisible primary’

‘François Mitterrand, asked about any EC problem would reply “More Europe, more Europe”. No more.’ Photograph: Getty Images

‘Not surprisingly the last few years has seen the rise throughout Europe of nationalist “Out, out, out” forces, although yet to f(...)

US Supreme Court . . . although conservative-led is now under fire from Republican presidential candidates. Photograph: Karen Bleier/AFP/Getty Images.

Conservatives challenge judicial supremacy

The Five Presidents’ report outlines plans to strengthen economic and monetary union through closer integration of the euro group. Photograph: Getty Images

Five Presidents’ report has been overshadowed by crisis talks over Greece

A Royal Mail commemorative stamp from a set marking the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. Photograph: PRESS ASSOCIATION

‘The Magna Charta Hiberniae, “son of” Magna Carta, slightly amended and issued for Ireland on November 12th, 1216, is part of the (...)

‘Forty years on, this very French, eclectic gathering, lubricated by copious wine and fromages to die for, provided some telling snapshots of the country’s, and particularly its left’s, uncertain, confused, and depressed mood and the langueur of its politics.’ Photograph: Getty Images

‘The tension between the republican, secular state, caricatured as Paris and its elites vs rural France, is very much alive in its(...)

‘Then there’s our own Belfast Agreement, into which the Human Rights Act is woven. The latter’s repudiation would breach international treaty obligations, specifically in relation to the British-Irish Agreement that underpins the agreement.’ Photograph: Getty Images

‘Would Westminster legislate to allow the writ of the ECHR continue to prevail in Northern Ireland and Scotland while not in the r(...)

Nigel Farage: Ukip, the party he led into the British general election, would have won 84 seats – rather than one – under the PR system. Photograph: Carl Court/Getty Images

Proportional representation in the UK election would have enshrined the necessity for coalition

WB Yeats – “I think it better that in times like these/ A poet’s mouth be silent ...”

The Great War transformed our understanding of war, forcing writers to describe the world in new ways, and in a new language

‘Diaspora savings attributed to migrants from developing countries were estimated at €464 billion in 2013, mostly held in the banks of states to which they have migrated.’ Photograph: Getty Images

Remittances tell a story of sacrifice, families divided and massive bank penalties

David Cameron: has warned of the UK “sleepwalking towards the exit” and  bizarrely sees his referendum pledge as a way of regaining control. Photograph: Leon Neal/Reuters

Ireland must assess and analyse Brexit implications with rigorous logic

‘The election had been called by Netanyahu not so much to steal a march on a rejuvenated opposition to his left but to strengthen his hand in dealings with cabinet allies to his right.’ Above: supporters of Benjamin Natanyahu cheer as they hear the first  predictions of the Israeli election results. Photograph: Abir Sultan/EPA

‘He told the crowd he would work to take care of the welfare of all Israeli citizens’

‘The contest to run the fourth largest city in the US has pitted President Obama’s former chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, against an opponent not from the Republican Party, but a Democrat on his left, in an election that has been about austerity and cutbacks with parallels to the remarkable victory of of radical community activist Bill de Blasio in New York in 2013.’ Photograph: REUTERS/Jim Young

Jesús “Chuy” García takes on Rahm Emanuel in race foreshadowing White House battle

‘If it is okay to repair faulty mitochondrial DNA, the slippery slope argument goes, then what about other genetic diseases caused by faults in nuclear DNA?’ Photograph: Getty Images

‘If the House of Lords backs the licensing of the procedure the UK will be the first state in the world to embrace the new techniq(...)

 ‘In Germany establishment parties have ruled out co-operation with Pegida, the German acronym for “Patriotic Europeans Against Islamisation of the West”.’ Supporters of the Pegida movement waves flags while they gather for a march in their first Berlin demonstration,  following  marches in Dresden.  Photograph:  Carsten Koall/Getty Images

This week mosques have been bombed in Sweden, in Dresden thousands of anti-immigrant marchers demand a halt the ‘Islamisation of t(...)

‘There is the danger that in conceding that freedoms can rightly be limited we turn the discussion into one in which we are considering how much the victim of an attack on freedom of speech like Charlie Hebdo was to blame for its own fate.’ Above, a woman holds a placard   in front of the French embassy in Rome. Photograph:  Alessandro Bianchi/Reuters

‘The appalling massacre at Charlie Hebdo promises to make 2015 yet more deadly for journalists’

An anti-Castro Cuban exile in Florida holds a Cuban flag during a protest after the announcement of the restoration of diplomatic ties between Cuba and United States. Photograph: Carlos Barria/Reuters

Possible eventual loss of strategic foothold will not have pleased Vladimir Putin

In happier times: Franklin Foer, right, with Chris Hughes, in May 2012. Photograph: James Estrin/The New York Times

‘Chris Hughes decided to bring the venerable, once-liberal US political journal into the 21st century online age by firing editor(...)

‘Last year, the Swiss government apologised after decades of silence about the scope and inhumanity of the policy.’ Photograph: Getty Images

Opinion: ‘Until the 1930s the allocation of many of the children to farmers in search of cheap labour was done through auction at (...)

Key players: former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbatchev, former US president George Bush and former German chancellor Helmut Kohl

The prospect of a united Germany faced huge hostility but became a reality just 11 months after the Berlin Wall fell

‘By Friday, reckoning discretion to be the better part of valour, Orbán  abandoned the new tax altogether. People power.’ Above, earlier in the week tens of thousands of Hungarians held up their mobile phones as they crossed  the Elisabeth Bridge, in Budapest,  during a protest against the  tax on internet data transfers. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/Reuters

Opinion: ‘Orbán’s measure also has to be seen in the light of his own particular brand of right wing, deeply regressive consumptio(...)

The Woodenbridge first World War Memorial Park in Co Wicklow, formally opened last month. The memorial, 15 stone pillars on which the names of the dead and their townlands are inscribed, commemorates the approximately 1,200 men from all parts of Co Wicklow who died in the first World War. It is inscribed with the lines of Francis Ledwidge’s poem below. Photograph: Jack McManus

Redmond’s gamble that Irish nationalism’s support for empire in first World War would cement home rule proved terribly wrong, but (...)

‘Several decisions by the Strasbourg Court have particularly upset Tories’. Above,  party leader David Cameron  addresses the Conservative party’s annual conference earlier this month. Photographer: Chris Ratcliffe/Bloomberg

Opinion: ‘The court and convention were largely products of British/Winston Churchill’s post-War desire to bind wayward Europeans (...)

‘This week the Cabinet has at last agreed, at the instigation of the Constitutional Convention (above), to remove the concept from the Constitution by means of referendum.’ Photograph: Eric Luke / THE IRISH TIMES

Opinion: A disturbed British national, facing a death sentence for blasphemy in Pakistan was shot and seriously wounded in his (...)

England’s opportunity: Prime Minister David Cameron responds to Scottish result, promises new powers for English MPs (Photo: Dan Kitwood/Getty Images)

Cameron, deeply concerned by likely English backlash, promises fast reforms

‘The Ukraine crisis has also prompted Ireland’s fellow EU neutrals Sweden and Finland to take a significant step closer to Nato membership in signing agreements to allow Nato deployment and training operations on their territory.’ above, The first session of the Nato summit  in Newport, south Wales. Photograph: Stefan Rousseau/PA

Opinion: Summit marked a turning point – back to defending Europe from a potential adversary

‘Alistair Darling (right) unsettled his opponent, commentators seemed to agree, most effectively by repeatedly injecting doubt into the debate about Scotland’s post-separation currency.’ Above, with  Alex Salmond (left) First Minister of Scotland and  host Bernard Ponsonby from the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, in the live TV debate. Photograph:  Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Opinion: Debates on Scotland’s independence and UK’s relationship with Europe show contradictions

 The blame game has resumed – flowers in tribute to the victims of flight MH17 near the entrance to the military airport in Eindhoven, southern Netherlands. Photograph: EPA/Marcel Van Hoorn

A familiar Cold War rhetoric to much of the discussion from our anti-war/neutrality lobby

Analysis: There is a politically unmentionable calculation that Ireland is best served by the preservation of the Union

Massoud Barzani with US secretary of state John Kerry. Photograph: AP

Opinion: A unilateral declaration by Barzani would be a mistake

‘Many Scots are being registered to vote for the first time by young activists from the likes of the Radical Independence Campaign who are reinventing mass street campaigning.’ Above, Radical Independence delegates at their conference last November in Glasgow. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Opinion: What Westminster can give it can also take away, delay, prevaricate on

Recently printed stamps for the Prince Felipe coronation. Photograph:  Gonzalo Arroyo Moreno/Getty Images

Opinion: Twelve European monarchies survive

Narendra Modi, India’s new prime minister, left, greets Nawaz Sharif, Pakistan’s, prime minister, during a swearing in ceremony for the prime minister this week.  Photograph: Udit Kulshrestha/ Bloomberg

Opinion: Arguments over territorial claims could trigger military face-offs

Photo by Mark Renders/Getty Images

Opinion: Parliamentarians hoped to boost the ailing profile and legitimacy of the European Parliament

“One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans.”– Otto von Bismarck (1888)

‘Marine Le Pen and  Geert Wilders recently have agreed to form a continental anti-European alliance aimed at wrecking the EU from within.’ Photograph: Benoit Tessier/Reuters

World View: Sixty per cent of voters tend not to trust the EU

Iraqi elections are seen as a “democratic watershed”, though they  may lead to deepening tensions. Above, municipal workers clean up at the site of a car bomb attack in Baghdad. Photograph: Thaier al-Sudani/ Reuters

World View: Elections can heal divisions or fuel conflict

Opinion: When should minorities have a right to secede?

Opinion: There is a danger of exaggerating the power and the threat posed by Putin

German Social Democrat Martin Schulz: engaged in a “slightly democratic” gambit. Photograph: Reuters

Opinion: A low poll could sink Schulz’s gambit

Viktor Orban: out on a political limb over attitude to Hungary’s war record and its interpretation. Photograph: Reuters

Opinion: Recent incidents have blurred the line between commemoration and celebration

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