A protester holds a sign reading in Czech “Stop Islam and stop Merkel”, during an anti-Islam rally in front of Prague Castle. Photograph: Filip Singer/EPA

Rival street protests increase as Czech president warns of Muslim ‘invasion’

Poland’s prime minister Beata Szydlo  and her Hungarian counterpart Viktor Orban  pose for photographers after their press conference in Budapest on Monday. Photograph: Attila Kisbenedek/AFP/Getty Images

Concerns expressed about proposal to curb benefits for new migrants from EU states

Ukraine’s economy minister Aivaras Abromavicius:  stepped down as economy minister, claiming political  interference. Photograph:  Valentyn Ogirenko/Reuters

All G7 states bemoan Aivaras Abromavicius’s departure and demand reforms

Adi Roche, founder of Chernobyl Children International (CCI), with Ann Doherty, chief executive of Cork City Council and Lord Mayor of Cork Chris O’Leary. Photograph: Dan McLaughlin.

Cork delegation visits areas in Ukraine and Belarus that were affected by nuclear fallout

People hold flags during a large protest in Chisinau, Moldova, last Sunday. More than 15,000 people gathered to protest against the government, demanding early elections. Photograph: AP Photo/Vadim Ghirda

Calls for European mediation in deepening crisis as government refuses to resign

Protesters shout slogans during a large demonstration in Chisinau, Moldova, on Sunday. Photograph: Vadim Ghirda/EPA

Mass emigration saps prospects for recovery in Europe’s poorest country

Protesters in the middle of a blocked motorway in Chisinau on Sunday. At least 15,000 people rallied in the capital  in the latest demonstration against a government that was hastily approved by parliament and secretly sworn in late last Wednesday. Photograph: Robert Ghement/EPA

Parliament speaker rejects opposition demands as West eyes pro-Russian challenge

Women chant slogans during a large protest in Chisinau, Moldova on Sunday. More than 15,000 people gathered to protest against the government, demanding early elections in Europe’s poorest state. Photograph: Vadim Ghirda/AP

Demonstrators vow to disrupt transport network unless demands are met

A protest outside the national television building  in Chisinau, Moldova, against the new government headed by pro-European  Pavel Filip. Photograph:  Dumitru Doru/EPA

Opposition chiefs unite and call for huge anti-government rally on Sunday

People attending a rally in front of the parliament building in Chisinau, Moldova, on Thursday. Photograph: Dorin Goian/AFP/Getty Images

People in Europe’s poorest state sick of rampant corruption and political chaos

Migrants and refugees walk along snow-covered fields after crossing the Macedonian border into Serbia, near the village of Miratovac, on Tuesday. Temperatures in Syria are forecast to drop to -20 degrees this week. Photograph: Dimitar Dilkoff/AFP/Getty Images

Children most at risk amid fears of a ‘domino effect’ of closing Balkan borders

Migrants walk through a frozen field after crossing the border from Macedonia, near the village of Miratovac, Serbia, on Monday. Photograph: Marko Djurica/Reuters

Growing tendency to close borders in Europe threatens spirit of co-operation

Kiev’s main airport, Boryspil, in Ukraine. Ukrainian authorities will review the defences of government computer systems  after a cyber attack on Kiev’s main airport was launched from a server in Russia. Photograph: Reuters/Valentyn Ogirenko

Kiev airport computer affected after hackers are blamed for blackout in western Ukraine

Temporary haven: the migrants’ transit camp in Dobova, Slovenia. Photograph: Sergey Ponomaren/New York Times

The new year has failed to bring cohesion to Europe’s handling of its worst refugee emergency since the second World War

Nikola Gruevski, a conservative who has ruled for almost a decade, announcing his resignation. Photograph: Georgi Licovski/EPA

EU seeks to soothe rancour over plans for snap elections due in April

Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko gestures during his press conference in Kiev on Thursday. Photograph: Genya Savilov/AFP/Getty Images

President Poroshenko seeks EU and US help to regain Crimea from Russia

 Arriving in Gevgelija: After their ordeals, many refugees are  content to wait a while in the southern Macedonia town where local and international aid groups offer food, clothes, medical help and other crucial services. Photograph: Boris Grdanoski/AP

Macedonia funnels war refugees north on ‘official’ route closed to other migrants

Protesters throw molotov cocktails during a violent protest in Pristina, Kosovo, on Saturday. Photograph: EPA/Valdrin Xhemaj

In Bosnia, Serbs ignore country’s top court and celebrate with Belgrade and Moscow’s backing

Women and children migrants in the Serbian village of Miratovac after crossing the Macedonian border.  Photograph: Armend Nimani/AFP/Getty Images

Trafficking resurgent as border controls and winter weather fail to halt refugee crisis

Ottoman Empire flag: Legend has itthat Suleiman’s heart was removed and interred in a tomb built where he died – a site Hungarian experts think they have found. Photograph: Getty Images

Discovery of Suleiman’s tomb set to be confirmed as country criticised over refugees

Dangerous journey: refugees arrive on the Greek island of Lesbos in October. Potograph: Matej Divizna/Getty

About 1.5 million asylum seekers will reach the EU in 2016. Will member states join Angela Merkel in her optimism about a united E(...)

European Union commissioner for trade Cecilia Malmstrom: “Gradually, the [pact] will contribute to a prosperous Ukraine and to stronger economic integration with the EU,” she said. Photograph:  Thierry CharlierAFP/Getty Images

Debt and energy disputes fuel deep rancour between Kiev and Moscow

Ukraine’s President Petro Poroshenko: has demanded that rebel leaders scrap plans to hold elections on their own terms in February. Photograph: Regis Duvignau

Much of Minsk pact still unfulfilled as Kiev and Moscow prepare for trade war

President Vladimir Putin: state media now give blanket (positive) coverage to Russia’s bombing campaign in Syria and devote far less time to Ukraine. Photograph: EPA/Sergei Karpukhin

World review of the year: His pride at ‘returning’ Crimea to Russia still costing the country

Armenia’s president Serzh Sargsyan, Belarus’ president Alexander Lukashenko, Russian president Vladimir Putin, Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev and Kyrgyzstan’s president Almazbek Atambayev in Moscow. Photograph: Alexei Druzhinin/AFP/Getty Images

Heavier clashes hit Nagorno-Karabakh as Russia-Turkey row puts south Caucasus on edge

An Islamic State militant  in  Damascus, Syria: 11 people were arrested in Bosnia on suspicion of being linked to Islamic State and other terror groups. Photograph: AP

Arrests made as concern grows over Balkan radicals, thriving black market in weapons

A woman in a supermarket in St Petersburg, Russia. Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev has signed a decree to ban food imports from Ukraine from January 1st. Photograph: EPA/Anatoly Maltsev

Moscow to ban Ukrainian food imports when it enters free trade zone with EU next month

Ukrainian prime minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk: “The government of Ukraine is imposing a moratorium on payment of the so-called Russian bond.” Photograph:  Sergei Chuzavkov/AP Photo

Moscow to scrap free-trade zone with Kiev in response to planned EU-Ukraine trade pact

Russian president Vladimir Putin was typically bullish at his annual end-of-year news conference in Moscow. Photograph: Maxim Zmeyev/Reuters

Russian leader hails Donald Trump and Sepp Blatter

A demonstrator taking part in a protest in Szekesfehervar, Hungary, on Monday against a planned statue of Balint Homan. Photograph: Bernadett Szabo/Reuters

State money funds monument to supporter of Nazis and anti-Jewish laws

Serbia’s president Tomislav Nikolic with France’s sustainable development and energy minister Ségolène Royal at the UN conference on climate change in Paris. Photograph: Loic Venance/AFP/Getty Images

Belgrade opens first EU accession ‘chapters’ as envoys warn Bosnian Serb leaders

Ukraine’s prime minister Arseniy Yatsenyu is pulled from the rostrum of the  parliament in Kiev on Friday by Oleh Barna, a deputy from the party of Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko. Photograph: Valentyn Ogirenko/Reuters

Premier manhandled at rostrum where US vice president called for unity this week

Dutch art historian and art detective Arthur Brand, Hoorn mayor Yvonne van Mastrigt and director of the Westfries Museum Ad Geerdink hold a press conference on stolen art works in Hoorn. Photographi Olaf Kraak/AFP/Getty Images

Kiev fears political fallout from Westfries Museum’s claims against nationalist militia

 The body of a woman killed during shelling lies on a street in Kramatorsk, Ukraine, on  February 10th, 2015. Fighting in eastern Ukraine has killed more than 9,000 people. Photograph: Gleb Garanich/Reuters

Russian fighters and arms still flow to a conflict that has killed more than 9,000

US vice-president Joe Biden  is applauded by Ukraine president Petro Poroshenko:  Mr Biden’s address in Kiev marked the climax of a two-day visit to Ukraine. Photograph: Sergei Supinsky/AFP/Getty Images

Joe Biden calls for anti-corruption drive and pledges to maintain US pressure on Russia

Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko (right) shakes hands with US vice-president Joe Biden after delivering a statement on the results of their talks in Kiev. Photograph: Reuters/Sergei Supinski/Pool

US vice-president Joe Biden urges Moscow to halt aggression against Ukraine

Stranded migrants wait in  a field as they try to cross the Greek-Macedonian border, near the village of Idomeni in Greece. Photograph: Alexandros Avramidis/Reuters

Slovakia launches legal case and Hungary accuses Germany of ‘secret deal’ with Turkey

Nato secretary general Jens Stoltenberg during a press conference at Nato headquarters in Brussels on Tuesday. Photograph: John Thys/AFP/Getty Im ages

Ex-Yugoslav state poised to become 29th Nato member despite public ambivalence

A doll, placed by stranded Iranian migrant protesters, hangs from barbed wire  at the Greek-Macedonian border, near Greek village of Idomeni. Photograph: Yannis Behrakis/Reuters

Aid groups warn of mounting humanitarian problems as winter grips Balkans

Russian people throw stones as they protest in front of the Turkish embassy in Moscow. Photograph: Maxim Shipenkov/EPA

Moscow accuses Ankara of ‘defending’ and trading with Islamic State, but rules out war

Ukrainian prime minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk:  his country now has sufficient fuel in storage and can buy gas more cheaply from Europe. Photograph: Andrew Kravchenko/AP Photo

Moscow threatens to halt coal sales to Ukraine amid Crimea power crisis

 A still image shows a burning trail as a Russian  plane comes down after being shot near the Turkish-Syrian border. Photograph: Haberturk TV Channel/EPA

US and Nato back Turkey over downing of Russian fighter on border with Syria

A Syrian Turkmen brigade deputy commander holds handles believed to be parts of a parachute from  the downed Russian warplane near the Turkish-Syrian border. Photograph: Reuters

Russian politicians warn of economic retaliation after jet shot down

People play cards in Simferopol, Crimea, on Sunday. Crimea has declared a state of emergency after its main electricity lines from Ukraine were blown up, leaving the Russian-annexed peninsula in darkness. Photograph: AFP Photo/Max Vetrov

With no land link with Russia, Crimea relies on Ukraine for most of its power and water

Migrants near Gevegelija, Macedonia, protest because they are not allowed to cross the border to Greece. Photograph: EPA/Georgi Licovski

Traffickers likely to profit as entry into EU restricted to Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis

Refugees and migrants sleep outside the registration and transit camp near Gevegelija, in he Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia have started restricting access to migrants on the Balkan route to Syrians, Iraqis and Afghans. Photograph: Georgi Licovski/EPA

UN aid agency says situation at border crossings ‘a serious, serious worry’

 Most of more than 800,000 asylum seekers who have come to Europe this year travelled through the Balkans. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

States blocking ‘economic migrants’ as fears mount in wake of terror attacks in France

Russia’s president Vladimir Putin and US president Barack Obama meet at the G20 summit in Turkey on November 16th. Photograph: Kayhan Ozer/AFP/Getty Images

The need to unite against common enemy may soften US and EU’s stance against Russia

Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban with German chancellor Angela Merkel  during an informal summit on migration  recently. Mr  Orban claims  the  crisis  is “a German problem”. Photograph: AP

Hungary plans legal challenge as Poland and Bulgaria turn against scheme

Hungarian special force police officers inspects the rucksack of a migrant as a Slovenian police officer looks on at a registration camp on the Slovenian side of the Croatian-Slovenian border. Photograph: Gyorgy Varga/EPA

Thousands still arriving in EU each day from violence-wracked countries

National leaders along the “Balkan route” are under pressure to address the growing fears of their people, which in several cases are fanned by nationalist parties on the rise. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Razor wire reignites Croatia-Slovenia spat, as Austria becomes latest to plan border fence

Slovenian soldiers building a razor wire fence on the Slovenian-Croatian border in Gibina, northeastern Slovenia, on Wednesday. Photograph:  Jure Makovec/AFP/Getty Images

Balkan ire with EU inaction grows as Hungary says Dublin rules on migrants are ‘dead’

Gay rights activists attend a rally outside the parliament building in Kiev on Tuesday. Photograph: Gleb Garanich/Reuters

Parliament debates reforms amid uptick in fighting with Russian-backed separatists

Russian president Vladimir Putin’s spokesperson has said that allegations of widespread doping in Russian athletics are ‘unfounded’. Photo: Alexander Zemlianichenko/Reuters

‘American, Canadian sportsmen have been caught even more than Russians’

HDZ leader Tomislav Karamarko  celebrates the party’s achievement in securing the most seats in Croatia’s general election. The party had expected to win more decisively, however. Photograph: Antonio Bat/EPA

Main parties seek allies as migration crisis and economic woes roil EU member

Governor of Odessa Mikheil Saakashvili is determined to make Ukraine’s largest region, a model of liberal reform. Photograph: Alexey Kravtsov/AFP/Getty Images

Vibrant Black Sea port of Odessa aims to become regional IT hub

Protesters demonstrate against the political class and Romanian authorities  in Bucharest. Photograph: Daniel Mihailescu/AFP/Getty Images

Bucharest nightclub fire that killed 32 prompts wave of protests against corruption

Migrants are escorted through fields by Slovenian police and the army as they walk from the village of Rigonce to Brezice refugee camp on Saturday. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Aid groups warn of rising health risks as Syrians flee latest surge in fighting

Slovenian prime minister Miro Cerar: “If these countries tighten the access for migrants, we will be forced to do likewise.” Photograph: Emmanuel Dunand/AFP/Getty Images

Emergency EU meeting comes amid reports that Germany is pushing for state quotas

Protesters demanding the resignation of prime minister Milo Djukanovic take to the streets of Montenegro’s capital  Podgorica, on October 18th. Photograph: Stevo Vasiljevic/Reuters

Russia says rising tensions are caused by former Yugoslav republic’s bid to join Nato

Former Ukrainian prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko. She and her party were trounced in presidential and parliamentary elections last year

PM Yatsenyuk’s party withdraws from the ballot as popularity plunges

A mounted policeman leads a group of migrants near Dobova, Slovenia. The country has moved to tighten security to cope with a surge of migrants arriving from the Balkans. Photograph: Srdjan Zivulovic/Reuters

Mini-summit to seek ‘immediate operational action’ on crisis

Refugees walk through a village at the Croatian-Slovenian border: Many had endured what experienced volunteers described as the worst conditions they had seen on the migrants’ “Balkan route”. Photograph:  Antonio Bat/EPA

Balkan crossroads calls on army and EU for help as Croatia funnels migrants west

A child is lifted over a fence by Slovenian policemen as migrants attempt to cross the border near Trnovec, Croatia. Photograph: Reuters

Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia trade accusations over failure to co-ordinate flow of people

Odessa’s governor Mikheil Saakashvili: in open conflict with  prime minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk. Photograph:  Reuters/Stringer

Mikheil Saakashvili and ex-Microsoft executive Sasha Borovik confront power brokers

 Croatian foreign minister Vesna Pusic: “Slovenia will not close its border unless Germany closes its border, in that case Croatia will have to do the same.” Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

More than 4,000 migrants arrive in Slovenia after Hungary closes its southern border

Kent Harstedt, OSCE special co-ordinator: ‘It is clear that Belarus still has a long way to go towards fulfilling its democratic commitments.’ Photograph: Maxim Malinovsky/AFP/Getty Images

Opposition leaders denounce landslide vote and EU’s softer attitude to Lukashenko

Belarusian president Alexander Lukashenko. After his last re-election five years ago prompting a brutal police crackdown and the arrest of hundreds of people, including several presidential candidates. Photograph: Nikolai Petrov/Belta/Pool/EPA

Brussels woos autocratic leader Lukashenko in continuing power struggle with Russia

Migrants and refugees walk to board a bus after crossing the Greek-Macedonian border, near Gevgelija on Thursday. Photograph: Robert Atanasovski/AFP/Getty

Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia back Hungary’s tough line on refugee crisis

Tanks of the Ukrainian armed forces make a crossing during a withdrawal near the village of Nyzhnje in Luhansk region this week. Photograph:  Reuters

Separatists delay local elections amid broad de-escalation of conflict

Migrants wait to cross the Serbian border into Croatia at Bapska last week. Tens of thousands have passed through there in recent weeks. Photograph: David Ramos/Getty

People on the move receive leaflets on finding lost relatives and avoiding minefields

Croatian prime minister Zoran Milanovic (centre) with armed forces officers during a visit to the  migrant transit camp in Opatovac. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Austria warns force could be used against migrants if it has to tighten border controls

A migrant feeds a child before they board a train at the railway station in Tovarnik, Croatia. Photograph: Reuters/Antonio Bronic

Hungary threatens to seal another border as Croatia lambasts Serbia

Officials in Dubrovnik, a tourist hotspot in southern Croatia known as the “Pearl of the Adriatic”, fear it could become part of a new route for thousands of migrants

Dubrovnik warns people may attempt more southerly crossing to avoid Hungary’s fence

 Hungarian soldiers build a temporary  razor-wire fence  at the border between Hungary and Croatia. Photograph: Gyorgy Varga/EPA

Refugees sleep out in open in Balkans as weather and political situation worsen

Refugees and migrants wait for a train heading to Serbia . Croatia and Serbia are accusing each other over their handling of the migration crisis. Photograph: Getty Images

Hungary suggests ‘corridor’ to Austria as fence on Croatian border nears completion

Migrants get off a train  at the railway station of Botovo, near the Croatian-Hungarian border. Photograph: Stringer/AFP/Getty Images

Syrians fleeing conflict viewed as having best chance of receiving asylum in west Europe

Walking the last few kilometres from Serbia to Croatia. Photograph: David Ramos/Getty Images

Twenty years after independence war migrants pass through still battle-scarred east

Opatovac: During a visit to the camp  Croatia’s interior minister Ranko Ostojic assured refugees that they would only be kept there ‘for a short time’. Photograph: Antonio Bat/EPA

New law will allow soldiers to use non-lethal force to stop illegal migrants

Police guard a train  for Zagreb as migrants desperately try to continue to board at Tovarnik station. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Crisis meeting of EU ministers to be held as tension builds between Hungary and Croatia

A fallen  border sign   near the  village Asotthalom on the Hungarian-Serbian border after Hungary closed its border in an effort to stem the wave of migrants entering the country. Photograph: Attila Kisbenedek/AFP/Getty  Images

Barrier blocks migrants in Serbian village but is praised on Hungarian side

A young girl walks through a cornfield near the  Croatian border with Serbia. Photograph: Sergey Ponomarev/The New York Times

Hungary accuses Croatia of breaking EU law at border while Slovenia halts rail traffic

Migrants force their way through police lines at Tovarnik station to board a train bound for Zagreb. People are now diverting to Croatia from Serbia after Hungary closed its border. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Prime minister criticises Hungary, but president takes tougher line on refugees

Children wait to enter a registration camp after they crossed the border with parents between Serbia and Croatia near the city of Tovarnik. Photograph: Antonio Bat/EPA

Zagreb opens border to refugees – and immediately struggles to cope with numbers

Hungarian police use tear gas at the border crossing between Serbia and Hungary near Horgos on Wednesday. Photograph: EPA

Hungary says at least 20 police and several migrants injured in border clashes

A migrant girl is overcome by pepper spray and tear gas after Hungarian police repelled an attempt by migrants to break the border post gate. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty

Rights groups sound alarm over Hungary’s new laws as migrants re-route to Croatia

Hungarian police officers control the border line as a migrant man carrying his child walks by at the Horgos border crossing into the Hungary, near Horgos, Serbia, on Tuesday. Photograph: Darko Vojinovic/AP Photo

Serbia and rights groups alarmed by Hungary, as Austria reintroduces border checks

Migrants and refugees walk near razor-wire along a  fence secured by Hungarian police at the official border with Serbia.  Photograph: Elvis Barukcic/AFP/Getty Images

Tighter border controls in central Europe risk driving refugees towards traffickers

A migrant, after a long trip, at the border  between Hungary and Serbia  where the  fence was closed by Hungarian police. Photograph: Attila Kisbenedek/AFP/Getty Images

Premier Orbán sending over 850 officers to border with Serbia to ‘defend Europe’

French interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve (left) and German interior minister Thomas de Maziere leave after an European Union interior and justice ministers emergency meeting on the migrants situation in Brussels. Photograph: Reuters

Germany shifts stance as officials try to cope with numbers crossing borders

A migrant with his child talks to  police officers after Hungarian police sealed the border with Serbia near the village of Horgos, Serbia. Photograph: Marko Djurica

Minister for Justice Frances Fitzgerald calls on EU states to show solidarity

A child arrives by bus in Berlin from Munich. Some 450,000 refugees have arrived in Germany so far this year, including 37,000 in the first eight days of September. Photograph: Getty Images

Brussels gathering comes day after German plan to introduce border controls for Austria

Migrants walk through a gap in the fence at Hungary’s border with Serbia, near Roszke. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty

Move comes as Germany brings back border controls with Austria

 A youth carries a young boy in a makeshift sling as they walk towards waiting buses at the Hungarian border with Serbia. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

It is easy for local criminals to fleece migrants along their route to Western Europe

Migrants enter Hungary from Serbia at the temporary border fence  near the village of Roszke, 180km southeast of Budapest. Photograph: Sandor Ujvari/MTI via AP

Hungarian troops gather near Serb border, while Austria halts trains and prisoners build fence

Migrants charging their mobile phones at Keleti railway station in Budapest last week. Photograph: Herbert P Oczeret/EPA

Facebook, messaging and Google Maps help refugees cross borders and avoid police

Refugees and migrants push each other as they try to board a bus following their arrival onboard the Eleftherios Venizelos passenger ship at the port of Piraeus, near Athens, in Greece. Photograph: Alkis Konstantinidis/Reuters

Austrian and German volunteers drive hundreds of migrants out of Hungary

Beder Jasim, from Aleppo in Syria and his friend Ibrahim  Momtaz. “We feel great now. Thank you to Austria. In Hungary things were very bad, and we were scared. Now we feel safe” said Mr Jasim.

Red Cross and volunteers come out in force to welcome and help migrants

People escaping war and poverty march along the motorway out of Budapest. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/Reuters

People continue their long journey towards western Europe as darkness falls

Phones are charged at Keleti Railway Station in Budapest. Photograph: Herbert P Oczeret/EPA

Chaos as Budapest train station reopens with police attempt to take passengers to camps

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