Academics, lecturers and students protest against fee increases at universities across the country under the banner #feemustfall outside parliament in Cape Town, South Africa, on Thursday. Education minister Blade Nzimande insisted many students could afford to pay higher fees. Photograph: Nic Bothma/EPA

Campuses in Johannesburg and Cape Town are shut as demonstrations continue

South African president Jacob Zuma  “raised the amount through a home loan obtained from VBS Mutual Bank on its standard terms”. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

South Africa president repays €481,000 owed to taxpayers as ordered by court

Disgruntled members of South Africa’s ruling African National Congress party demonstrate near party headquarters, demanding the resignation of President Jacob Zuma and the national executive committee, on Monday. Photograph: Gianluigi Guercia/AFP/Getty Images

Protesters call on Jacob Zuma to resign amid party outcry over minister’s statement

An Elephants Without Borders plane flying over a herd of elephants at the Ngoma border between Namibia and Botswana while taking part in the survey in February this year. Photograph: AFP/Elephants Without Borders

Just 350,000 remain in 18 countries, a 30 per cent fall in seven years

South African president and ANC leader Jacob Zuma: faced accusations, which he denied, that the Gupta brothers were offering senior government posts in return for favours. Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

Family accused of using close relationship with president Zuma to secure favours

Julius Malema, leader of South Africa’s Economic Freedom Fighters, at a media briefing in Alexander township on Wednesday. Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

Opposition DA to take lead role in several councils after ANC’s electoral setbacks

President Jacob Zuma: while there were a number of factors behind the ANC’s electoral decline  the unpopularity of Mr Zuma, who is accused of corruption and beset by scandals, was high among them. Photograph: Herman Verwey/AP Photo)

African National Congress takes collective responsibility for loss of four major ‘metros’

Mmusi Maimane, the first black leader of South Africa’s Democratic Alliance party,  at the local elections results centre in Pretoria on Thursday. Photograph:  Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

Black voters in urban areas abandon governing party in unprecedented numbers

South African deputy president and  African National Congress deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa. Photograph: GIanluigi Guercia/AFP/Getty Images

Polls show ruling party may lose control it has had in cities since democracy in 1994

Fr Andrew Yakulula with some of the Todonyang mission schoolchildren outside their church. Photograph: Bill Corcoran

Warring tribes, part 2: Church and charities ease tensions over scarce resources

One of the armed watchmen who guards Fr Andrew Yakulula and his mission community in Todonyang in Kenya. Photograph: Bill Corcoran

The Turkana and Dassanech tribes on Lake Turkana are fighting over shrinking resources

The bullet which entered Bill Brogan’s face below his left eye shattered the cheek bone, breached his brain and remains lodged in the skull. Photograph: The Irish Times

Bill Brogan (68) discovered unconscious by wife and son in doorway following shooting

There is a stock crisis in South Africa that is undermining many patients’ efforts to adhere to a treatment plan.

Shortage of HIV antiretroviral drugs hampering fight against Aids

Olympic athlete Oscar Pistorius holds the hand of a relative after sentencing at the high court in Pretoria: he was given a six-year sentence but is eligible for parole after serving three years. Photograph: Marco Longari/Pool/Getty Images

Ex-Paralympic athlete avoids 15-year sentence usually given in South Africa for murder

Eight speedboats belonging to Mozambican state company Proindicus  at the Maputo Harbour in Maputo: the firm borrowed  $622 million. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Ireland delays €6 million aid package as secret and questionable loans go missing

Oscar Pistorius takes his place in court during the third day of his murder sentence hearing at the Pretoria High Court in South Africa. Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/AFP/Getty Images

Paralympic athlete attends third day of sentence hearing for 2013 murder of girlfriend

Oscar Pistorius leaves the high court in Pretoria yesterday,  on the second day of his pre-sentencing hearing. Photograph: Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images

South African Olympic athlete is being sentenced for the murder of Reeva Steenkamp

Jacob Zuma is in as president of South Africa in May 2009. The NPA’s decision will not only work in Mr Zuma’s favour, but also the ANC’s. Photograph: EPA

Move by the South African National Prosecution Authority has led to accusations it is protecting the president

Miners Matela Hlabathe and Vuyani Elliot Dwadube listening to the judgment in the silicosis court case at the Johannesburg High Court, in Johannesburg, South Africa, on Friday. Photograph: EPA/Shayne Robinson/Mutiny Media

Up to 500,000 former and current miners contracted lung disease from the 1960s on

Vodacom sign in South Africa

The trainee accountant who came up with the popular texting idea finally won his case by sheer persistence

South Africa’s main opposition party Democratic Alliance leader Mmusi Maimane celebrates  the Pretoria high court ruling that corruption charges against President Jacob Zuma could be reinstated. Photograph: Mujahid Safodien/AFP/Getty Images

President may face 783 arms deal-related charges that were dropped in 2009

Democratic Alliance leader Mmusi Maimane addresses up to 25,000 supporters at the launch of the party’s election manifesto: he told them South Africa under Jacob Zuma was moving backwards, and that change was needed to ensure the delivery of basic services. Photograph: EPA/Kevin Sutherland

Candidates make hay from corruption scandals that have eroded party’s support base

South African president and ANC president Jacob Zuma: he has been accused of high-level corruption which led to calls by the public and  within his party for him to step down. Photograph:  Michael Sheehan/AFP/Getty Images

Despite discontent with leadership, most back the president as ANC faces tough election

Pressure mounts on coach Allister Coetzee to give more black players a chance

South Africa’s deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa and president Jacob Zuma stand during the playing of the national anthem in parliament in Cape Town. Photograph: Mike Hutchings/Reutes

Opposition failed to have ANC leader Zuma impeached for flouting the constitution

 A member of the oppostion party Economic Freedom Fighters reacts during a debate over the removal of the president in parliament in Cape Town, South Africa, on Tuesday. Photograph: Nic Bothma/EPA

Motion to remove president from office defeated as ANC MPs rally to leader’s side

South African president Jacob Zuma: opposition parties and some respected ruling party members called on Mr Zuma to stand down following the court ruling against him. Photograph:  Nic Bothma/EPA

ANC party backs South African president after court rules he failed to uphold constitution

 President Jacob Zuma: the constitutional court unanimously ruled that South Africa’s first citizen had failed to “uphold, defend, and respect” the constitution. Photograph: Mike Hutchings/AP

President violated constitution by not repaying taxpayers’ money used on his home

South African president Jacob Zuma (right) with French president François Hollande during a summit on health and sanitary security. Photograph: Olivier Anrigo/EPA

As more politicians talk of a scandal, the African president’s support is dwindling

President Jacob Zuma at a Human Rights Day rally in Durban:  he was criticised in December for his abortive shuffle of finance ministers. Photograph: Rogan Ward/Reuters

The SA president has agreed after years to pay towards the upgrade of his rural home

President Jacob Zuma answering questions in parliament in Cape Town on March 17th: it is claimed his close friends the Gupta brothers offered the finance ministry in exchange for favours. Photograph: Mike Hutchings

Three Gupta brothers are alleged to have offered South African ministries for favours

The skull from a white male rhinoceros carcass at the Kruger National Park, South Africa, on Wednesday.  The rhino had to be put down by officials from the park after he was shot and injured by poachers. Photograph: Shiraaz Mohamed/EPA

Slight reduction in poaching in South Africa offset by increases in Zimbabwe and Namibia

Jacob Zuma: legal case could lead to renewed corruption charges. Photograph:  John MacDougall/AFP/Getty

No-confidence motion against ‘reckless leadership’ of president dismissed as ‘frivolous’

In 2000, 72 per cent of South Africans  believed interracial relations were improving; by 2012, this had dropped to 39 per cent. Photograph: Lisa Hnatowicz/Foto24/Gallo Images/Getty Images

Angry debate on social media highlights worsening race relations in ‘rainbow nation’

File image from  January 21st, 2014 shows the controversial homestead of South African President Jacob Zuma in Nkandla.  File photograph: Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images

President had outlined way to end dispute over near-€20m upgrades to private home

Zimbabwe’s president Robert Mugabe (right): Opposition parties are said to believe the 2018 election may be the best chance in decades they have to oust Mugabe’s party from power. Photograph: Jakesai Njikizana/AFP/Getty Images

Former party colleagues of President Robert Mugabe target 2018 elections

Clockwise from top: Rwanda’s Paul Kagame; Uganda’s Yoweri Museveni; DRC president Joseph Kabila; and  Burundi’s Pierre Nkurunziza

Rwanda’s Paul Kagame is latest president to alter constitution in order to stay in power

 Nelson Mandela in Dublin in 1990. Criticising their late president is no longer taboo for South African politicians.  Photograph: Frank Miller/The Iris Times

Increasingly divisive SA president Jacob Zuma in opposition sights prior to election

South Africa’s new finance minister Pravin Gordhan (left) chats with Lesetja Kganyago, governor of the Reserve Bank of South Africa, during a media briefing in Pretoria on Monday. Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

President forced to change tack after original sacking of minister sent rand tumbling

David van Rooyen being sworn in to succeed Nhlanhla Nene as South Africa’s minister of finance, while President Jacob Zuma looks on, in Pretoria. Photograph: Elmond Jiyane/EPA

SA president faces backlash from markets and opposition parties over dismissal

Chinese president Xi Jinping inspects a guard of honour  in Pretoria, where he announced a $60bn package for Africa. Photograph: EPA/Karel Prinsloo/Pool Chinese president Xi Jinping inspects a guard of honour in Pretoria, where he announced a $60bn package for Africa. Photograph: EPA/Karel Prinsloo/Pool

€55bn Chinese investment in the continent will come with with policy strings attached

China’s president Xi Jinping walks with his South African counterpart Jacob Zuma ahead of the Forum on China-Africa Co-operation. Photograph: Sydney Seshibedi/Reuters

China is Africa’s biggest trading partner, says South African minister Jeff Rade

Poachers realise that any animal that's got one of these collars or units attached to it is basically off the list

A conservation group has developed units to protect rhinos, whose horns are worth more than €50,000

A young boy fills his cup from a water tanker in Coronation, Johannesburg, as South Africa experiences its worst drought in decades. EPA/KIM LUDBROOK

Agriculture hit as country suffers worst shortages since the 1930s

According to crop modelling, which helps to estimate yields when certain weather and soil conditions are applied, drought will decimate staple foods under a low mitigation future, especially important ones such as maize

A deal at UN conference in Paris is crucial for continent’s future

South Africa’s former president Kgalema Motlanthe in December 2005, when he was general secretary of the African National Congress. Photograph: Gianluigi Guercia/AFP

Ex-president Kgalema Motlanthe says party’s MPs do not respect its own constitution

John and Lynette Rodgers, from Holywood in Co Down, are understood to have drowned while visiting Plettenberg Bay as part of their honeymoon. Photograph: Caroline Smyth Photography/PA Wire.

John and Lynette Rodgers from Co Down drowned after becoming caught in a rip-tide in Plettenberg Bay

Students outside  Union Buildings in Pretoria: On Wednesday 29 students were arrested after protesters stormed parliament during a budget speech. Photograph: Kim Ludbrook/EPA

Week of unrest ends in fierce clashes with police outside president’s office

Some of the thousands of students from Wits University in Johannesburg demonstrate during another day of protest against fee increases. Photograph: Kim Ludbrook/EPA

Students charged at Cape Town court with public violence after protesters storm parliament on Wednesday

Pistorius family spokeswoman Anneliese Burgess speaking to   media outside the home of Oscar Pistorius’s uncle, Arthur, where the athlete is to live under house arrest. Photograph: Kim Ludbrook/EPA

Prison authorities sneak Paralympian out of Pretoria facility in darkness to avoid media

South African president and ruling party African National Congress (ANC) president Jacob Zuma  at ANC’s 4th National General Council. Photograph: Gianluigi Guercia/AFP/Getty Images

President’s announcement he will not stand for another term adds to concerns

A member of the South African police force arrests a man in a protest against the lack of policing in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. Photograph: Nic Bothma/EPA

Beleaguered police commissioner Riah Phiyega under pressure as murders rise by 4.6%

 Hand of friendship: South African president Jacob Zuma with Chinese president Xi Jinping on a recent visit to  Beijing. Photograph: EPA/Lintao Zhang/Pool

ANC document allies country with China and Russia, in spite of economic risk

Sudan’s president Omar al-Bashir: Attended a meeting of the African Union in Johannesburg in June. Photograph: Mohamed Nureldin Abdallah/Reuters

Sudan’s Omar al-Bashir faces charges of war crimes at the International Criminal Court

Boys play soccer in Marikana’s Nkaneng township in front of the Lonmin’s Marikana platinum mine in Rustenburg, South Africa. Photograph: Reuters

Government, mining companies and unions reach agreement after weeks of negotiations to stabilise the industry

A derelict gold mine shaft’s winding gear in Johannesburg, South Africa.  The country is  the fifth largest gold producer in the world and has vast amounts of other minerals still to be unearthed. Photograph:  Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

Organisation says class action may be only access to justice for workers and families

Paralympian Oscar Pistorius will leave prison on Friday: the lenience afforded Pistorius has sparked outrage on many public forums and on chat shows. Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

Paralympian’s release from jail after just 10 months has sparked outrage in South Africa

The Springboks: pressure is on the team to record a win before heading to compete in the World Cup in England. Photograph:  Duif du Toit/Gallo Images/Getty Images

Union accuses ‘rugby mafia and white establishment’ of excluding black players

The bones of the dead ‘canned lions’ are increasingly being sold to Asia for use in potions and medicines

The outcry over the killing of Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe coincides with a documentary on the brutal phenomenon of South Africa’s (...)

Gold and coal mining companies are engaged in what all parties are describing as difficult wage negotiations against a backdrop of falling metal prices. Photograph: Reuters

Metal prices fall as demand tails off

Mozambican president Filipe Nyusi: the number of  millionaires in Mozambique will increase by 120 per cent to 2,200 by 2024, according to New World Wealth. Photograph: Etienne Laurent

Mozambique expected to have 2,200 millionaires by 2024, research suggests

President Jacob Zuma: the public protector said in a report last year that Mr Zuma had unduly benefited from the security upgrades which included a swimming pool, visitors’ centre, chicken run and cattle enclosure

Leader of South Africa’s opposition party says upgrades far exceed security requirement

A political rally in Burundi for President Pierre Nkurunziza:  Africa’s recent history at holding leaders to account does not inspire confidence. Photograph: Tyler Hicks/The New York Times

Regionally run court with mandate similar to ICC’s is ultimately desirable

 South Africa’s president Jacob Zuma with school children during the closing ceremony of the 25th African Union  summit in Johannesburg on June 16th. Photograph: Elmond Jiyane/EPA

Scandal around African National Congress seen by some as mocking the constitution

Sudan’s president Omar al-Bashir waves to his supporters at the airport in Khartoum on June 15th, on arrival for  South Africa. Photograph: Mohamed Nureldin Abdallah/Reuters

Warning comes following failure to detain Sudan’s president Omar al-Bashir

Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir waves as he arrives in Khartoum from Johannesburg after a court ordered him not to leave South Africa as it decided whether to arrest him over alleged war crimes.  Photograph: Ebrahim Hamid/AFP/Getty Images

Criminal charges to be considered for those responsible for Sudanese president's escape

Kenyan men work at a road construction site near Isiolo town, 320km north of Nairobi, in July 2008. The road was being built by China Wuyi, a Chinese state company, and funded by African Development Bank and the Kenyan government. Since then the scale of Chinese aid to Africa has increased dramatically. Photograph: Antony Njuguna/Reuters

China accused of using aid programme to forge ties with autocratic regimes in Africa

“This is the moment to invest in the continent,” South African president Jacob Zuma told business leaders, academics and politicians. Photograph:  Rodger Bosch/AFP/Getty Images

World Economic Forum hears growth in Africa is outpacing the global average

Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade Charlie Flanagan: led the trade mission which resulted in more than 200 meetings being held between Irish firms and potential business partners. Photograph: Brian Lawless/PA Wire

34 companies targeted export opportunities in technology, aviation and energy sectors

South African president Jacob Zuma: the public protector, an anti-corruption watchdog, found he had “unduly benefitted” from security renovations at his rural home. It recommended he repay a reasonable amount of the money to the exchequer. Photograph: Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty Images

South Africa’s parliament hears Jacob Zuma not liable for nearly €20 million in security

South Africa’s sports minister Fikile Mbalula:  maintained that the government had yet to see a copy of the indictment that outlines the alleged corruption. Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

Government ministers quick to dismiss suggestion of a $10 million payment

‘I was never really an adventurous type of person’: Zimbabwe’s small but hardy band of Irish expats have stuck out deteriorating (...)

Itai Dzamara in a protest against Robert Mugabe’s government last autumn. He was abducted on March 9th and has not been since since.

Supporters worry about fate of activist Itai Dzamara, who called for regime change in Zimbabwe

The leader of Zimbabwe’s opposition party Movement for Democratic Change,  Morgan Tsvangirai, addresses supporters at a rally in Bulawayo. Donors to his party are frustrated by its continuing failure to dislodge  Robert Mugabe. Photograph: Zinyange Auntony/AFP/Getty Images

President ( 91) ruling over country that has ground to a halt

Dave Connolly and the other 300-400 white farmers in Zimbabwe seem to be under threat again. In January, the government said white farmers had 90 days to leave their farms, although those who supported Zanu-PF – Mugabe’s ruling party – would be spared. Photograph: Bill Corcoran

The latest wave of land reform is a risk to investment and unjust, say critics

Tobacco farmers in Harare protest during an auction on the first day of Zimbabwe’s marketing season earlier this year, as prices for the country’s biggest agricultural export plunged. Photograph: Jekesai Njikizana/AFP/Getty Images

Mining and tourism present opportunities, but many will resist the ailing economy and 51% indigenisation law

Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithin delivering a speech in Durban yesterday. Photograph: Getty Images

Goodwill Zwelithini rejects accusations over xenophobic assaults in South Africa

People take cover from a stun grenade and tear gas after a skirmish  during this week’s march against xenophobia in Durban, South Africa. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Zimbabwe students’ union calls for retaliation against SA businesses

South African men run from police as rioting and looting is quelled during anti-foreigner violence in Durban yesterday. The wave of anti-foreigner violence spread downtown. Photograph: Rogan Ward/Reuters

Comments by Zulu king – later retracted – believed to have sparked wave of attacks

A statue of Cecil John Rhodes is bound by straps as it awaits removal from the University of Cape Town on Thursday. The university’s council voted on Wednesday to remove the statue of the former Cape Colony governor after protests by students. Photograph: Mike Hutchings/Reuters

South Africa plans national day of talks on future of controversial monuments

South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma: opposition MPs maintain fireworks are likely in Parliament. Photograph: Reuters

President to appear in parliament for the first time since his refusal to address calls to repay taxpayers’ money caused uproar in(...)

A GAA player in South Africa: Steven “Papi” Malingaer

Zimbabwe’s president Robert Mugabe trips up: the 91-year-old oversaw the installation of his wife Grace as president of the Zanu-PF women’s league. Photograph: AP

As Robert Mugabe turns 91 today, he continues to cling to power at home

Studying by candle light during load shedding in Soweto.  Photograph: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters

South Africans endure up to three power outages a day as its electricity company, Eskom, struggles to cope

A  protest outside police headquarters in Pretoria. Despite some    efforts by authorities to clean up the police force, there has been no significant decline in criminality. Photograph: Mujahid Safodien/AFP/Getty Images

Institute of Race Relations finds 1 per cent of officers have criminal records

Archbishop  Desmond Tutu: said recently it felt like the dark days of apartheid had returned. Photograph: Paul Hawthorne/Getty Images

Spate of attacks has stoked concerns about growth of white racism

Zimbabwe’s former vice-president Joice Mujuru, who has denied plotting against  the country’s president and her party leader, Robert Mugabe. Photograph: EPA

Mnangagwa’s new role sets him up to succeed Zimbabwean president

Children from the Zip Zap circus school prepare ahead of a World Aids Day concert in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Today is the first anniversary of Nelson Mandela’s death. Photograph: Nic Bothma

A year after his death, the ANC is tarnished by suspicions of corruption

Kenyan men work  on a road being built by China Wuyi, a Chinese state company: China has played a crucial role in Africa’s economic development over the past 15 years. Photograph: Antony Njuguna/Reuters

Western countries increasingly see Beijing’s relationship with the continent as a threat

 Joyce Mujuru: Until recently she was considered the leading contender to take over from Robert Mugabe. Photograph: Getty Images)

Ruling Zanu-PF bars vice-president from contesting seat on party’s top committee

South African president claims not to have been involved in project so says he is not liable for any overspend

Mr Higgins and his wife Sabina were given a first-hand account of the methods employed by the apartheid government to break and divide inmates on Robben Island by prisoner turned tour guide Thulani Mabaso. Photograph: Chris Bellew / Fennell Photography 2014

Nelson Mandela spent 18 of his 27 years in jail on Robben Island

President Michael D Higgins delivering the keynote address “On International Human Rights and Global Development” at the University of Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, yesterday. Photograph: Fennell Photography

Analysis: Higgins comes close to challenging Government during South African speech

 President Michael D Higgins with  South African president  Jacob Zuma at the Union Buildings in Pretoria yesterday. Photograph: Chris Bellew/Fennell Photography

President meets Zuma during South African visit

hildren in an Oranjekloof School classroom in Hout Bay, Cape Town. Photograph: Rogan Ward

A recent survey found that two-thirds of South Africa’s citizens with no education were living in poverty, and so Niall Mellon has(...)

President Michael D Higgins at the University of Johannesburg, Soweto Campus, yesterday, where he delivered the keynote address, Challenges and Opportunites in Africa, on the 16th day of his 22-day official visit to Ethiopia, Malawi and South Africa. Photograph:  Chris Bellew/Fennell

Impact of climate change and depletion of natural resources meant economies had to change, which involved risks and opportunitie(...)

South Africa’s president Jacob Zuma is greeted by assistant minister for defence Stuart Robert and Queensland’s premier Campbell Newman on his arrival in Australia today in advance of the G20 summit. He left behind a controversy over a multimillion-euro overspend on upgrades to his home. Photograph: Steven Holland/Getty

Punches thrown as opposition parties try to block approval of ANC MPs’ findings

Members of Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe’s Zanu PF show their support for Mugabes’s wife, Grace, in Harare. Photograph: Philimon Bulawayo/Reuters

Robert Mugabe’s Zanu-PF factions vying for control of ruling party

Jacob Zuma: South Africa’s public protector (ombudsman) had found that the president had unduly benefited from several non-security feature upgrades at his property. Photograph:  Neville Hopwood/Getty Images

South African president cleared over €17.8m upgrades at home by own party members

Oscar Pistorius after his sentencing at the North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria yesterday. Photograph: Themba Hadebe/New York Times

South African paralympian could be moved to house arrest after serving 10 months

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