Tanks of the Ukrainian armed forces make a crossing during a withdrawal near the village of Nyzhnje in Luhansk region this week. Photograph:  Reuters

Separatists delay local elections amid broad de-escalation of conflict

Migrants wait to cross the Serbian border into Croatia at Bapska last week. Tens of thousands have passed through there in recent weeks. Photograph: David Ramos/Getty

People on the move receive leaflets on finding lost relatives and avoiding minefields

Croatian prime minister Zoran Milanovic (centre) with armed forces officers during a visit to the  migrant transit camp in Opatovac. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Austria warns force could be used against migrants if it has to tighten border controls

A migrant feeds a child before they board a train at the railway station in Tovarnik, Croatia. Photograph: Reuters/Antonio Bronic

Hungary threatens to seal another border as Croatia lambasts Serbia

Officials in Dubrovnik, a tourist hotspot in southern Croatia known as the “Pearl of the Adriatic”, fear it could become part of a new route for thousands of migrants

Dubrovnik warns people may attempt more southerly crossing to avoid Hungary’s fence

 Hungarian soldiers build a temporary  razor-wire fence  at the border between Hungary and Croatia. Photograph: Gyorgy Varga/EPA

Refugees sleep out in open in Balkans as weather and political situation worsen

Refugees and migrants wait for a train heading to Serbia . Croatia and Serbia are accusing each other over their handling of the migration crisis. Photograph: Getty Images

Hungary suggests ‘corridor’ to Austria as fence on Croatian border nears completion

Migrants get off a train  at the railway station of Botovo, near the Croatian-Hungarian border. Photograph: Stringer/AFP/Getty Images

Syrians fleeing conflict viewed as having best chance of receiving asylum in west Europe

Walking the last few kilometres from Serbia to Croatia. Photograph: David Ramos/Getty Images

Twenty years after independence war migrants pass through still battle-scarred east

Opatovac: During a visit to the camp  Croatia’s interior minister Ranko Ostojic assured refugees that they would only be kept there ‘for a short time’. Photograph: Antonio Bat/EPA

New law will allow soldiers to use non-lethal force to stop illegal migrants

Police guard a train  for Zagreb as migrants desperately try to continue to board at Tovarnik station. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Crisis meeting of EU ministers to be held as tension builds between Hungary and Croatia

A fallen  border sign   near the  village Asotthalom on the Hungarian-Serbian border after Hungary closed its border in an effort to stem the wave of migrants entering the country. Photograph: Attila Kisbenedek/AFP/Getty  Images

Barrier blocks migrants in Serbian village but is praised on Hungarian side

A young girl walks through a cornfield near the  Croatian border with Serbia. Photograph: Sergey Ponomarev/The New York Times

Hungary accuses Croatia of breaking EU law at border while Slovenia halts rail traffic

Migrants force their way through police lines at Tovarnik station to board a train bound for Zagreb. People are now diverting to Croatia from Serbia after Hungary closed its border. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Prime minister criticises Hungary, but president takes tougher line on refugees

Children wait to enter a registration camp after they crossed the border with parents between Serbia and Croatia near the city of Tovarnik. Photograph: Antonio Bat/EPA

Zagreb opens border to refugees – and immediately struggles to cope with numbers

Hungarian police use tear gas at the border crossing between Serbia and Hungary near Horgos on Wednesday. Photograph: EPA

Hungary says at least 20 police and several migrants injured in border clashes

A migrant girl is overcome by pepper spray and tear gas after Hungarian police repelled an attempt by migrants to break the border post gate. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty

Rights groups sound alarm over Hungary’s new laws as migrants re-route to Croatia

Hungarian police officers control the border line as a migrant man carrying his child walks by at the Horgos border crossing into the Hungary, near Horgos, Serbia, on Tuesday. Photograph: Darko Vojinovic/AP Photo

Serbia and rights groups alarmed by Hungary, as Austria reintroduces border checks

Migrants and refugees walk near razor-wire along a  fence secured by Hungarian police at the official border with Serbia.  Photograph: Elvis Barukcic/AFP/Getty Images

Tighter border controls in central Europe risk driving refugees towards traffickers

A migrant, after a long trip, at the border  between Hungary and Serbia  where the  fence was closed by Hungarian police. Photograph: Attila Kisbenedek/AFP/Getty Images

Premier Orbán sending over 850 officers to border with Serbia to ‘defend Europe’

French interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve (left) and German interior minister Thomas de Maziere leave after an European Union interior and justice ministers emergency meeting on the migrants situation in Brussels. Photograph: Reuters

Germany shifts stance as officials try to cope with numbers crossing borders

A migrant with his child talks to  police officers after Hungarian police sealed the border with Serbia near the village of Horgos, Serbia. Photograph: Marko Djurica

Minister for Justice Frances Fitzgerald calls on EU states to show solidarity

A child arrives by bus in Berlin from Munich. Some 450,000 refugees have arrived in Germany so far this year, including 37,000 in the first eight days of September. Photograph: Getty Images

Brussels gathering comes day after German plan to introduce border controls for Austria

Migrants walk through a gap in the fence at Hungary’s border with Serbia, near Roszke. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty

Move comes as Germany brings back border controls with Austria

 A youth carries a young boy in a makeshift sling as they walk towards waiting buses at the Hungarian border with Serbia. Photograph: Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

It is easy for local criminals to fleece migrants along their route to Western Europe

Migrants enter Hungary from Serbia at the temporary border fence  near the village of Roszke, 180km southeast of Budapest. Photograph: Sandor Ujvari/MTI via AP

Hungarian troops gather near Serb border, while Austria halts trains and prisoners build fence

Migrants charging their mobile phones at Keleti railway station in Budapest last week. Photograph: Herbert P Oczeret/EPA

Facebook, messaging and Google Maps help refugees cross borders and avoid police

Refugees and migrants push each other as they try to board a bus following their arrival onboard the Eleftherios Venizelos passenger ship at the port of Piraeus, near Athens, in Greece. Photograph: Alkis Konstantinidis/Reuters

Austrian and German volunteers drive hundreds of migrants out of Hungary

Beder Jasim, from Aleppo in Syria and his friend Ibrahim  Momtaz. “We feel great now. Thank you to Austria. In Hungary things were very bad, and we were scared. Now we feel safe” said Mr Jasim.

Red Cross and volunteers come out in force to welcome and help migrants

People escaping war and poverty march along the motorway out of Budapest. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/Reuters

People continue their long journey towards western Europe as darkness falls

Phones are charged at Keleti Railway Station in Budapest. Photograph: Herbert P Oczeret/EPA

Chaos as Budapest train station reopens with police attempt to take passengers to camps

A refugee family from Syria with their daughter as hundreds wait to take a train to Germany at Keleti train station in central Budapest. Photograph: Mauricio Lima/The New York Times

Hungarian PM in Brussels for talks as parliament debates tighter border controls

A migrant, hoping to cross into Hungary, plays with a child along a railway track outside the village of Horgos in Serbia, towards the border it shares with Hungary. Photograph: Marko Djurica/Reuters

Horgos mayor fears destruction of local economy as tens of thousands cross fields

Migrants stage a sit-down demonstration as police block the entrance to Keleti train station in Budapest on Tuesday. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/Reuters

Viktor Orban to meet EU officials as Germany demands unity among member states

Migrants near Szeged, Hungary, after crossing the border from Serbia. Photograph: Matt Cardy/Getty Images

Relentless hardship and exploitation numbs many to the journey’s ordeals

Travellers sit in a train with migrants en route to Vienna from Budapest. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/Reuters

Germany calls for unity as central European states seek their own tough stance

 Migrants jump through the border fence from Serbia into Hungary. Critics see the  fence as a costly publicity stunt. Photograph: Matt Cardy/Getty Images

Hungary’s steel fence fails to deter migrants as EU ministers call for urgent meeting

Migrants wait for Macedonian police to allow them to cross the border along the Greek-Macedonian border, near the town of Gevgelija, on Friday. Photograph: Robert Atanasovski/AFP/Getty Images

States with history of conflict and emigration show little desire to help new arrivals

A worker renovating the one surviving wall of the Golden Rose synagogue, built in 1582 and destroyed by the Nazis in 1942. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

The conflict-hit country is keen to disprove Russian claims of rampant anti-Semitism

Migrants cross a wire fence at the border between Hungary and Serbia near Roszke, 180km southeast from Budapest. Photograph: Zoltan Balogh/MTI via AP

German and Balkan leaders to discuss migration with EU officials in Vienna

A unit commander kisses a flag held by Ukraine president Petro Poroshenko during a military parade in Kiev on Monday. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Ukraine’s president Petro Poroshenko in Berlin for talks that exclude Vladimir Putin

Zsuzsanna Zsohar, of  Migration Aid, helps migrants at Nyugati  station, Budapest. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

‘Strange and random’ happenings await the recent arrivals in an ill-prepared Europe

A Macedonian police officer facing a young migrant woman near Idomeni, northern Greece. Photograph: Sakis Mitrolidis/AFP/Getty Images

Only traffickers profit from current border regimes in region, activists say

A scene from Vukovar on November 18th, 1991, during the three-month sige of the town by ethnic-Serb rebels and Belgrade-controlled Yugoslav forces. Photograph: Art Zamur/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images

Move comes as Vukovar officials shown singing ‘fascist’ songs

Vladimir Putin: The Russian president  held meetings on tourism  in Crimea, which Russia annexed from Ukraine 17 months ago, after a night of heavy shelling in eastern Ukraine killed at least seven people and injured several others, according to Kiev and rebel officials.    Photograph:  Reuters

Moscow says clashes in eastern Ukraine resemble ‘preparations for more military action’

A woman stands outside her house which locals say was damaged in shelling on the outskirts of Donetsk. Photograph: Alexander Ermochenko/Reuters

Rebels call for intervention as violence around Donetsk spirals to record levels

US servicemen take part in a military drill in Yavoriv, western Ukraine. Military co-operation between Ukraine and its Nato allies is set to increase in the coming years. Photograph: Yuriy Dyachyshyn/AFP/Getty Images

Nato co-operation with Kiev set to expand despite Kremlin warnings

Bodyguards protect Serbia’s prime minister Aleksandar Vucic during unrest at a ceremony marking the 20th anniversary of the Srebrenica massacre on July 11th. Photograph: Ivan Sebalj/Avaz/Reuters

Bill Clinton calls for reconciliation between old Balkan enemies during commemoration

Ukrainian army members pay their repects to a fellow serviceman during his funeral ceremony in   Kharkiv. Photograph: Sofia Bobok/AFP/Getty Images

Seperatists deny launching what Kiev calls heaviest attack in six months

Macedonia’s prime minister Nikola Gruevski (centre) attend a rally in support  the government in Skopje in May. Macedonia is to have early parliamentary elections next year. Photograph: Georgi Licovski/EPA

Many believe deadly police operation was intended to ease pressure on government

Serbian nationalist leader Vojislav Seselj (behind the flag) and his party members burn the Croatian national flag in front of the Croatian embassy during a protest marking the 20th anniversary of Croatia’s four-day Operation Storm. Photograph: Marko Djurica/Reuters

Croatia rejects Serb claim that crushing 1995 military victory was ‘ethnic cleansing’

Soldiers returning from particiption in Operation Storm, which in just three days reclaimed almost 20 per cent of Croatia’s territory. Photograph: Ilie Bumbac/AFP/Getty Images

The similarities between the two conflicts give hope to some in embattled Ukraine

A father and son, Serb refugees from Krajina in the aftermath of Croatia’s ‘Operation Storm’, walk alongside refugee vehicles near the Bosnian Serb city Banja Luka on August 10th, 1995. Photoraph:  Ranko Cukovic/Reuters

Country remembers biggest military operation in Europe since the second World War

The site of a Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 air crash near the settlement of Grabovo in the Donetsk region. File photograph: Maxim Zmeyev/Reuters

Moscow rejects calls for international court to examine fatal Malaysia Airlines flight

Members of the Pravy Sektor movement and their supporters rally in front of the president’s administration in Kiev yesterday. Photograph: Genya Savilov/AFP/Getty Images

Right Sector group says it sought to crush mafia smuggling goods into the EU

Russian president Vladimir Putin gestures to Chinese president Xi Jinping as other heads of state look on during the Brics/SCO summits in Ufa. Photograph: Ria Novosti/Getty Images

However, five-country group insists it is not trying to challenge IMF or World Bank

The memorial centre in Potocari, Bosnia, a cemetery for victims of the Srebrenica massacre killed in 1995. Photograph: Amel Emric/AP Photo

Scores of dignitaries and 50,000 mourners expected at 20th anniversary commemoration

Ukrainian servicemen outside Shyrokino village, near the city of Mariupol, Ukraine, yesterday. Photograph: Sergey Vaganov/EPA

Netherlands and Malaysia want international tribunal on who downed airliner over eastern Ukraine

Bosnian Muslim women  gather  in Potocari to remember the dead.  Photograph: Damir Sagolj/Reuters

20 years ago, in the fields, roads, warehouses and barns of the verdant Srebrenica valley, more than 8,000 Bosniak men and boys we(...)

Serbian prime minister Aleksandar Vucic and Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban in Budapest on Wednesday. Photograph: Bernadett Szabo/Reuters

Viktor Orban defends border fence plan, warning millions could head for Europe

Bosnia Muslims pray near coffins at the memorial centre in Potocari during a mass burial near Srebrenica three years ago. Photograph: Dado Ruvic/Reuters

Formed after the Bosnian war, missing persons body now works globally

Russia’s president Vladimir Putin with defence minister Sergei Shoigu. Photograph: Mikhail Klimentyev/EPA/Ria Novosti

Risks rising as the West and Russia bristle over each other’s moves in eastern Europe

The mayor of the Hungarian village of Asotthalom, Laszlo Toroczkai, in his office. On his desk are passports and other documents thrown away by illegal migrants crossing from nearby Serbia. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Budapest to detail plans today to stop illegal migrants crossing from Serbia

Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban: criticised for what rights groups call his prejudiced campaign against migrants as he seeks to counter the rising popularity at home of the far-right Jobbik party :

‘We will not live in Auschwitz,’ says Serbia’s prime minister Aleksandar Vucic

Ramush Haradinaj:  He was cleared at the Hague in 2008, and at a re-trial four years later. Photograph: AP Photo/ Koen van Weel, Pool

Second high-profile detention in a week stokes tension in former Yugoslavia

The Hungarian government has ordered the interior ministry to ‘prepare for closure of the Hungarian-Serbian border by next Wednesday; this will be achieved by erecting a four-metre-high fence’ along its 175km length. Photograph: Laszlo Balogh/Reuters

European Parliament and right groups have denounced Budapest’s handling of migration question

A hippopotamus walks across a flooded street in Tbilisi. Photograph: Beso Gulashvili/Reuters

Tbilisi zoo swamped by raging torrent that caused more than €15m of damage

Chiril Gaburici, who resigned as Moldova’s prime minister on Friday. His travails intensified pressure on the government as Russia seeks to strengthen its position in two pro-Moscow regions of Moldova. Photograph: Viktor Dimitrov/Reuters

Pro-EU candidates expect to defeat after campaign dominated by scandal

Serb prime minister Aleksandar Vucic: said a testing month lay ahead for his country and the region. Photograph: Gent Shkullaku/AFP/Getty Images

British UN draft resolution on Srebrenica massacre fuels anger among Bosnian Serbs

 Salafi members in Upper Maoca village, Brcko, in northeastern Bosnia, deny allegations they are connected with Islamic State.  Upper Maoca is in the focus of the Bosnian public as the place from which recruited fighters were allegedly going to fight on the battlefields in Iraq and Syria to support the IS. Photograph: Samir Yordamovic/Anadolu Agency/Getty

Radicals exploit social and economic woes of traditionally moderate Balkan Muslims

A Ukrainian radical nationalist group Praviy Sektor (Right Sector) volunteer fighter fires his assault rifle during training near Pokrovskoe, eastern Ukraine, on Thursday. Photograph: Fabio Bucciarelli/AFP/Getty Images

Ukraine’s president and Nato say Russia is ramping up military support for separatists

Bosnian wood carver-sculptor Salem Hajderovac works on a chair for  Pope Francis, at his workshop in Zavidovici, Bosnia. The chair, made from walnut trees, is to be used by the pope  during his visit to Sarajevo. Photograph: Dado Ruvic/Reuters

Bosnians prepare to welcome Pope Francis to a country still scarred by war

A woman stands next to her tent in a makeshift camp in front of the government building in Skopje. Protesters have said they will not leave until the government resigns. Photograph: Robert Atanasovski/AFP/Getty Images

West scrambles to defuse confrontation as Moscow makes accusation of stoking unrest

In Armenia’s Caucasus Wildlife Reserve, warden Gor Hovhannisyan and guide Vahagn Vardumyan check a camera trap. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Caucasus conservation project aims to help rare wildlife and local people

Unidentified men carry the body of an Ukrainian serviceman who reportedly was killed in fighting at the Donetsk International Airport, during an exhumation of bodies of Ukrainian servicemen which was organized by the OSCE and Red Cross at the destroyed Donetsk International Airport. Photograph: Alexander Ermochenko/EPA

Shocking report issued as Russia seeks release of soldiers captured in Ukraine

Cadets of Kiev’s new police patrol service training at Ukraine’s interior ministry academy. It is hoped this new wave of officers will be the start to police reform in Ukraine. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Eka Zguladze overseeing project that aims to tackle Ukraine’s traffic police corruption

Yevgeny Yerofeyev lies on a bed at a hospital in Kiev yesterday. Ukraine claims Yerofeyev is one of two Russian special forces soldiers captured in eastern Ukraine. Photograph: Roman Pilipey/EPA

Russia admits two captives were soldiers, but but says they had left military

Colonel-general Viktor Muzhenko (left), head of armed forces in Ukraine, and a Ukrainian commander  show a rifle allegedly seized from captured Russian soldiers. Photograph: Gleb Garanich/Reuters

Kiev says alleged Russian military inteligence officers will be tried for terrorism

Anti-government protesters  wave Macedonian and Albanian flags  in Skopje. Photograph:   Dimitar Dilkoff/AFP/Getty

Tension still high ahead of planned pro-government march through Skopje today

“I’ve done what I had to do,” said Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko. Photograph: Simon Dawson/Bloomberg

Laws ban communist symbols, open KGB archives and enshrine role of wartime nationalist guerrillas

Macedonia’s prime minister, Nikola Gruevski: has accepted the resignation of two ministers and the state security chief but refuses to step down. Photograph: Ognen Teofilovski/Reuters

Bitter political enemies determined to stage big opposing rallies in the coming days

Alliance secretary general Jens Stoltenberg at the Nato  meeting in southern Turkey.   Photograph: Ozan  Kose/AFP/Getty Images

Ukraine conflict has alarmed the three small states with large Russian minorities

State security chief Saso Mijalkov walking by the coffin of  policeman Sasho Samoilovski this week. In a resignation letter yesterday, Mr Mijalkov said the centre-left opposition, led by Zoran Zaev, had caused the crisis with its “anti-state behaviour”. Photograph: Marko Djurica/Reuters

Amid fresh scandals, high-profile resignations fail to blunt drive to oust government

US secretary of state John Kerry is welcomed by Russia’s president, Vladimir Putin, at the presidential residence of Bocharov Ruchey in Sochi. Photograph: Joshua Roberts/AP

Analysis: Washington and Nato say Russia and rebels appear poised to renew offensive

The funeral procession for Macedonian police officer Boban Ivanovic in the village of Stajkovci, just east of Skopje.  Photograph: AP Photo/Boris Grdanoski

Questions swirl around deadly gun battle and actions of scandal-hit government

Relatives of killed policeman Sasho Samoilovski carry his coffin covered in Macedonian flag before his funeral in Tetovo, Macedonia, today. Photograph: Marko Djurica/Reuters

Unstable ex-Yugoslav state says Kosovar-led group planned major terror attacks

The Motherland monument decorated with a symbolic wreath of red poppies at the Ukrainian State Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Kiev, Ukraine, yesterday. Photograph: Gleb Garanich/Reuters

President Poroshenko says second World War shows danger of appeasement

Ukrainian cadets in full voice as they participate in a patriotic forum “Two Generations – Two Wars” at the Museum of Great Patriotic War in Kiev, Ukraine. Photograph: Reuters

War-torn state breaks with Russia and joins West in marking end of second World War

Sevan, Samuel, Lucy, Arshag and Arthur Agopyan in their Yerevan apartment. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Poor ex-Soviet state struggles to cope with influx from Aleppo and other cities

Petro Poroshenko (right) welcomes  European Commission chief Jean-Claude Juncker to Kiev on Monday. Juncker said the country’s 45 million people were ‘part of our European family’, but painful reforms were necessary before it could join the union. Photograph:  Genya Savilovgenya/AFP/Getty Images

European Union urges on reforms, but warns that country’s membership is a long way off

An eldery woman attends a religious service at the cathedral in Etchmiadzin, outside Yerevan, yesterday, ahead of the canonisation ceremony for the Martyrs of the Armenian genocide. Karen Minasyan/AFP/Getty Images

Ottoman massacre of up to 1.5 million Armenians still central to diaspora’s identity

People are reflected in a banner depicting ‘1915/1.5 million’, the year and the number of victims of mass killings of Armenians by Ottoman Turks, in Yerevan. Photograph: David Mdzinarishvili/Reuters

Group spends four days in Belfast as it looks to break the deadlock in ‘frozen’ conflict

Mourners at the Tsitsernakaberd Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum in the Armenian capital, Yerevan. Photograph: David Mdzinarishvili/Reuters

German parliament expected to call 1915 massacres ‘genocide’ on Friday’s centenary

Mourners at the funeral for six family members allegedly killed by a Russian soldier in Gyumri in January. Photograph: Karen Minasyan/AFP/Getty Images

Armenians angry at Russia’s refusal to hand over soldier accused of killing seven members of one family

Igor Slyusar, Yevgeny Kishkin and Sergei Tkalenko, volunteers of the Black Tulip group that retrieves the remains of Ukrainian troops from battlefields in rebel-held territory.  Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Volunteers venture into rebel-held territory to bring remains of hundreds of servicemen home

St Vladimir’s Russian orthodox cathedral overlooking ancient ruins at Chersonesus, Crimea, which was founded by Greek settlers 2,500 years ago. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Ukraine and Russia in tug-of-war over Scythian gold and other ancient treasures

Law and Justice (PiS) party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski lays flowers at the tombs of the victims of the  crash, marking the 5th anniversary of the crash at the Powazki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. The crash in Smolensk took the lives of 96 people including then president Lech Kaczynski and his wife. Photograph: Tomasz Gzell/EPA

Former president’s twin and supporters see conspiracy around air disaster in Russia

Derbent fortress in Dagestan, southern Russia. It was originally built by Persian rulers in the sixth Century. Photograph: Daniel McLaughlin

Derbent Letter: corruption and violence keep visitors from stunning ancient city

Ukraine president Petro Poroshenko has ordered officials to “create conditions to allow the ATR channel to work in Ukraine”. Photograph: Simon Dawson/Bloomberg

EU denounces Russian ‘persecution and intimidation’ of Crimean Tatars

Shevket Memetov in front of the Crimean Tatar flag in his office at ATR television station, where he is editor-in-chief. Photograph: Dan McLaughlin

Russia has refused to renew licence of ATR station ahead of today’s deadline

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