José Manuel Barroso  has strongly defended his decision to take the post. Photograph: Cyril Byrne

European Commission urged to toughen up rules governing jobs for former staff

 Head of Unesco Irina Bokova   and Bulgarian EU commissioner Kristalina Georgieva  who has replaced Ms Bokova as the country’s candidate to succeed Ban Ki-moon as secretary general of the United Nations. Photograph: Kena Betancur,Emmanuel Dunand/AFP/Getty Images

Support for Unesco head contender withdrawn after UN security council secret ballot

Cecilia Malmstrom, European Commissioner for Trade,   in Bratislava: “If we do not conclude TTIP before January 19th, then there will be a natural pause.” Photograph:  Jakub Gavlak/EPA

Deal unlikely before Obama leaves office, hears Bratislava meeting of EU trade ministers

British foreign secretary Boris Johnson who will be part of the British negotiating team that will hold Brexit talks with a new EU taskforce once Article 50 is triggered.

Taskforce will represent EU in negotiationswith Britain on exit once Article 50 triggered

Thousands of people demonstrate against TTIP and CETA in the centre of Brussels this week. Photograph: Reuters/Eric Vidal

EU officials concede TTIP likely to be parked until new US administration is bedded in

Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban is also facing competition from the far right party Jobbik. Photograph: Vladimir Simicek/AFP/Getty Images

Referendum is cynical move by prime minister Viktor Orban to keep focus off other issues

Protestors against the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership  and Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement demonstrate in Brussels on Tuesday. Photograph: Stephanie Lecocq/EPA

Demonstrators protest against TTIP ahead of trade ministers’ meeting in Bratislava

European Commissioner Margrethe Vestager  in Washington, where she defended the Apple tax ruling. Photograph:  Yuri Gripas/AFP/Getty Images

Commission’s investigation follows ruling Ireland breached state aid rules in Apple deal

Enda Kenny at EU summit at Bratislava castle: Ireland “has always contributed – taking into account the red-line issues we have in terms of neutrality – to European co-operation and we will continue to do so”. Photograph: Jasper Juinen/Bloomberg

EU leaders agree to step-up co-ordination in security measures and defence resources

EU leaders gather for an  EU summit at Bratislava castle: while the  meeting marks the start of the conversation about Europe, there have been calls for consideration of a multitiered EU, built around a core who want to integrate further and a looser constellation. Photograph: Ronald Zak/AP

Security, refugees and Brexit force divisions between east and west EU states

Slovakia prime minister Robert Fico, president of the European Council Donald Tusk and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker deliver a joint statement after the EU summit. Photograph: AFP /Getty Images

London warned that EU priority in exit talks preservation of remaining states interests

French president François Hollande, European commission president Jean-Claude Juncker and Taoiseach Enda Kenny during the Bratislava EU summit. Photograph: Olivier Hoslet/EPA

European leaders gather in Bratislava for first major meeting since Brexit vote

French president Francois Hollande welcomes German chancellor Angela Merkel for a working meeting at the Elyseé Palace in Paris a day ahead of a EU summit in Bratislava. Photograph: Eric Feferberg/AFP/Getty Images

Officials admit there is unlikely to be much progress before next year’s German and French elections

Britain’s prime minister Theresa May will not be at the EU summit in Bratislava this week called to consider the way forward for the bloc post-Brexit. Photograph: Toby Melville/Reuters

Europe Letter: Brussels finds few signs of coherent strategy from London

European Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager was congratulated by MEPs for her decision against Ireland. Photographs: AFP/Getty Images

Competition chief lauded for decision on firm’s €13bn liability due to illegal State aid

Jean-Claude Juncker arrives to speak to the European Parliament in Strasbourg on Wednesday. The European Commission president called for EU unity in the face of Brexit. Photograph: Frederick Florin/AFP/Getty Images

UK will not have ‘a la carte’ accees to single market, commission president vows

Margrethe Vestager, the competition commissioner “We have a robust decision and we will defend it in court.” Photograph: Reuters

MEPs from across political divide support tax ruling against Ireland

European competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager: Will address MEPs this afternoon in Strasbourg on her recent state aid ruling against Ireland

Margrethe Vestager to discuss finding that Ireland granted €13bn in state aid to Apple

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker delivers his annual “State of the Union” address to the European Parliament  in Strasbourg on Thursday. Photograph: Vincent Kessler/Reuters

Commission president says UK vote was warning that EU faces battle for survival

 European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker: His speech to the European Parliament in Strasbourg is expected to emphasise the EU’s ability to respond to citizens’ concerns over the issues of security and counterterrorism, building on his proposal for a European “security union” outlined in April.  Photograph: Stephanie Lecocq

Speech focused on rebuilding citizens’ trust may be eclipsed by Barroso’s new bank role

EU defence plan: Ireland has traditionally been staunchly opposed to the concept of enhanced EU military co-operation. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

Bratislava forum to discuss 'ambitious implementation plan on security and defence'

Sir Julian King: as one of 28 commissioners, the Europhile will play a key role in future Brexit talks. Photograph: Eric Luke/The Irish Times

British ambassador to Ireland during queen’s visit expected to be endorsed

Eurogroup president Jeroen Dijsselbloem and European Central Bank president Mario Draghi at the EU finance ministers’ meeting in Bratislava. Photograph: Filip Singer/EPA

Ministers unwilling to back Ireland publicly over Apple tax ruling

Several EU member states are seeking a share of the €13bn which Apple has been ordered to repay the Irish Government. File photograph: Niall Carson/PA Wire

Spain is expected to raise the issue as finance ministers gather for first time since ruling

EU’s economics commissioner Pierre Moscovici: “The message must be heard – no more tax evasion, no more tax fraud, no more tax avoidance, no more aggressive tax planning.” Photograph: Eric Piermont/AFP/Getty Images

EU economics commissioner warns of further measures in fight against tax avoidance

New plans for further cross-border harmonisation of tax rules across the EU are to be discussed by European finance ministers. File photograph: John MacDougall/AFP/Getty Images

State is likely to oppose moves to give Europe more fiscal power following Apple ruling

Danish EU commissioner  Margrethe Vestager: cynical observers could be forgiven for detecting a hint of schadenfreude behind the Apple decision. Photograph: Stephanie Lecocq/ EPA

Apple tax ruling by European Commission is only small step in fight against tax avoidance

Andrus Ansip, commissioner with responsibility for the Digital Single Market

Andrus Ansip insists commission’s ruling on Apple’s tax arrangements is justified

Donald Tusk, president of the European Council, who will meet Enda Kenny today amid the simmerimg row over the Commission’s ruling on Apple. Photographer: Qilai Shen/Bloomberg

Ireland increasingly isolated in terms of support from larger EU member states

José Manuel Barroso: took position as chairman and adviser to Goldman Sachs 20 months after stepping down as European Commission president. Photograph: Alan Betson

European Commission president asked to explain position on predecessor’s move

The European Commission is hoping to endorse the CETA trade deal at an  EU-Canada summit next month

Minister for Jobs rejects European Commission’s findings and says corporate tax rate will not be compromised

Before coming to her decision to support the appeal on Friday, Katherine Zappone held two separate meetings with Attorney General Máire Whelan lasting three hours in total. Photograph: Cyril Byrne/The Irish Times

Phil Hogan rejects claim EU Commission’s decision was politically motivated

European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker: “National authorities cannot give tax benefits to some companies and not to others. This is the level playing field that the commission is always working to defend.” Photograph: Qilai Shen/Bloomberg

Government boosted by strong support from Micheál Martin for its response to ruling

Mary Mitchell O’Connor: at meetings in Brussels today she is  expected to call for negotiators to continue progressing the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership deal. Photograph: Frank Miller

Doubt growing over TTIP in wake of comments by French and German ministers

Margrethe Vestager: continuing her clampdown against corporate tax avoidance  with Luxembourg again in her sights. Photograph:  Eric Vidal/Reuters

After state aid inquiries into Amazon and McDonald’s, EU looks again at Luxembourg

EU competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager: announced the biggest state-aid ruling in the bloc’s history.  Photograph: John Thys/AFP/Getty Images

Ruling gives momentum to other tax proposals currently in EU pipeline

The emergence of an increasingly bellicose European Commission has borne out Jean-Claude Juncker’s pledge in 2014 that he would lead a more political commission. Photograph: Francois Lenoir/Reuters

For some EU is taking lead on global issue, others believe institution is overstepping mandate

Talks continued last night with Independent Minister Zappone calling for commitment to tax justice. Photograph: Dara Mac Donaill

Dáil to be recalled to debate appeal against European Commission’s decision

Apple chief executive Tim Cook said it was clear the European Commission’s tax ruling was “coming from a political place”. Photograph: Niall Carson/PA Wire

Vestager rejects Apple chief executive’s assertions ruling was based on ‘no fact or law’

Established procedure in EU state aid cases is that recovered money returns to the national exchequer, but officials pointed out that the Apple ruling is unprecedented in size.

Commission to strongly recommend that money be used to ‘accelerate debt reduction’

Apple’s Cork campus. The Apple tax ruling marks a new front in the EU’s battle against tax avoidance and presents a challenge to transatlantic relations.

Move on Apple is new front in EU’s war on tax avoidance

The findings follow more than three years of investigations by the European Commission into Ireland’s tax arrangements with Apple.

Apple given selective treatment through two tax rulings, European Commission charges

British prime minister Theresa May meets Polish prime minister Beata Szydlo during a meeting in Warsaw, Poland on Thursday. Photograph: Tomasz Gzell/EPA

Prime minister driven by best interests of Britain and ‘what is going to work’ for EU

Former European Union commissioner for internal markets and services Michel Barnier: seen by many as “no friend” of the City of London. Photograph: François Lenoir/Reuters

European Commission’s choice of French former EU commissioner may antagonise UK

European Commission vice-president Frans Timmermans:   “Our fundamental concerns are still unresolved.” Photograph:  Francois Lenoir/Reuters

Country given three months to reform constitutional court or face disciplinary action

Fine Gael MEP Mairead McGuinness is one of 12 vice-presidents of the European Union. Dara Mac Dónaill/The Irish Times

Leadership roles, balance of power, Brexit and refugees to dominate autumn agenda

Michel Barnier: introduced a raft of EU regulations on financial services, accountancy and banking as commissioner.

Former European Commissioner Michel Barnier a surprise appointment to role

The implications for Britain’s security situation and border control is just one strand of a staggeringly complex picture as Britain begins the task of extricating itself from 43 years of directives, regulations and trade deals.  (Photo by Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images)

Theresa May knows Britain had the best of both worlds when it came to security and borders

Minister for Finance Michael Noonan’s department knew extra contributions were coming but underestimated how big they would be. Photograph: Gareth Chaney/Collins

Analysis: EU states, including Ireland, will have to pick up the tab in the wake of Brexit

President Francois Hollande with President Michael D Higgins and his wife, Sabina Higgins, at Áras an Uachtaráin yesterday. Photograph: Eric Luke

Taoiseach and French leader want Brexit talks to begin ‘as soon as possible’

 Turkish fishermen demonstrate at Bosphorus with Turkish flags against the  failed coup attempt in Istanbul. The dramatic developments in Turkey have taken place at a sensitive time in EU-Turkish relations. Photograph:  Deniz Toprak/EPA

If death penalty is reintroduced, it would mark the end of Turkey’s EU aspirations

The Irish Farmers’ Association welcomed the 2030 emission calculations, describing the new targets as “challenging but more balanced” than previous figures set by the commission. Photograph: The Irish Times

State still set to be one of only two member countries to fall short of mark by 2020

Armed police in Brussels detain a man. Photograph via Twitter

Suspect was described as having ‘cables hanging out of his clothes’

British prime minister Theresa May leaves number 10 Downing Street to attend Prime Minister’s Questions at the Houses of Parliament in London. Photograph: Getty Images

Ambassadors consider Belgium, Malta and Finland as alternatives for rotating presidency

John Kerry and Federica Mogherini  ahead of a EU Foreign Affairs Council meeting in Brussels yesterday. Photograph: Laurent Dubrule/EPA

US secretary of state John Kerry says Erdogan must provide ‘evidence, not allegations’

US Secretary of State John Kerry said that Washington had received no request from Ankara to extradite Fetullah Gulen. Photograph: Sergei Karpukhin/Reuters

Friday’s failed military coup which left 300 dead threatens to inflame tensions with US

Foreign ministers  Jose Manuel Garcia-Margallo of Spain, Belgium’s  Didier Reynders,  Boris Johnson of Britain and Malta’s George Vella talk during an EU council meeting in Brussels on Monday. Photograph: Stephane Lecocq/EPA

Britain’s new foreign secretary seen as a divisive figure as he makes Brussels debut

Minister for Finance, Michael NoonanPhotograph: Eric Luke/The Irish Times

Ruling by European Union is later than expected

New British prime minister Theresa May makes a speech outside 10 Downing Street, London. Photograph:   Hannah McKay/PA

Exit from EU could be drawn out as Downing Street not in a rush to trigger article 50

European competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager has denied accusations of bias against US multinationals. Photograph: Francois Lenoir/Reuters

Minister for Finance understood to have said tax case against tech giant is unfounded

US secretary of the treasury Jack Lew with French finance minister Michel Sapin.  Mr Lew is to meet competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager on Wednesday.

Meeting comes amid expectations that European Commission may rule on Apple investigation

French finance minister Michel Sapin congratulates Portuguese counterpart Mario Centeno on Monday in Brussels. Euro zone finance ministers met for their first euro group meeting since Brexit vote. Photograph: Francois Lenoir/Reuters

Economics chief expects to see contraction of between 0.2 and 0.5% by next year

Euro group chairman and Dutch finance minister Jeroen Dijsselbloem said he was opposed to allowing Italy bailout its banks in breach of new EU bail-in rules.  Photograph: Jasper Juinen/Bloomberg

It says tax payers should not shoulder burden of recapitalisation

Minister for Finance Michael Noonan said Mr Kenny’s skills in crisis management and  international contacts were very important. Photograph: Collins

Minister for Finance says party and country are fortunate to have Kenny as Taoiseach

US secretary of state John Kerry   with Poland’s foreign minister Witold Waszczykowski at the Nato summit in Warsaw, Poland.  Mr Waszczykowski said Europe and the US need  “a more active, energetic Nato that takes practical steps to ensure the real safety of its citizens.” Photograph: Jerzy Dudek/Reuters

Nato agrees to send four battalions of up to 4,000 troops to Poland and Baltic states

 Barack Obama speaking before the Nato Summit  in Warsaw, Poland, which is expected to decide about military reinforcements on Nato territory in Central-East Europe. Photograph: Leszek Szymanski/EPA

Cameron confirms UK troops will take part in planned Nato mission in eastern Europe

German Chancellor Angela Merkel: Berlin looks set to increasingly become the  contact point  for Washington  in the EU. Photograph: Wojtek Radwanski/AFP/Getty Images

Obama says the departure of Britain, a key US ally in Europe, will not affect EU-US relations

The National Stadium,   venue of the Nato summit, in Warsaw: The location of the meeting is replete with symbolism. Poland, which joined Nato in 1999, was once at the heart of  Soviet Russia’s sphere of influence. Janek Skarzynski/AFP/Getty Images

Summit will be David Cameron’s first international engagement since the referendum

A Nato Global Hawk drone   in Warsaw, Poland: Areas of co-operation between the EU and Nato will include   response to  hybrid attacks – a term used to describe a mixture of conventional and unconventional forms of warfare such as cyber attacks.  Photograph: Rainer Jensen/EPA

Brussels declaration will respect security and defence policies of non-Nato members

Jean-Claude Juncker: criticism of the European Commission President  has been brought to the surface by Brexit, with eastern European member states and the British and German press leading the charge. Photograph: Samuel Kubani/AFP/Getty Images

Awkward questions arise over Britain’s unique half-in, half-out relationship with EU

Minister for European Affairs Dara Murphy said he intended to press the point with the French government that now is not the time for Europe to “shrink into protectionism”.

Minister to meet French counterparts and encourage open, competitive Europe

Former leader of Ukip Nigel Farage: his term as an MEP will officially end in the spring of 2019 when the next European Parliament elections take place. Photograph:  Frederick Florin/AFP/Getty Images

Ukip’s outgoing leader says he will miss being European Parliament’s ‘pantomime villain’

Speaking in Strasbourg, Pierre Moscovici, the EU’s economics commissioner, said that the new rules would help tackle loopholes that allow tax evaders to hide funds offshore.

It is proposed that trusts and offshore funds will be obliged to disclose their beneficial owners to national authorities

Dutch prime minister Mark  Rutte said that he, like many other citizens woke up on the morning of June 24th feeling “pretty dreadful.” Photograph: Frederick Florin/Getty Images

Jean-Claude Juncker says Johnson and Farage ‘not patriots’ but are ‘leaving the boat’

German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble: said this was not a time for “grand visions”. Photograph: John MacDougall/AFP/Getty Images

Jean-Claude Juncker defends himself while Nigel Farage says he will finish term in Europe

EU Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker: “The EU is caught in an endless no man’s land between the need for further integration and the desire by citizens to retain as much national sovereignty as possible.”

The principle of ever-closer union and expansion has been turned on its head after Britain voted to leave

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker in Bratislava on Friday. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

‘If you want to have access to the internal market, you have to accept all the conditions’

Slovakia’s Prime Minister Robert Fico said that one of the key priorities of the Slovakian presidency was to improve the EU’s communication strategy in a bid to connect with citizens. Photograph: Pascal Rossignol/Reuters

‘It is time for us politicians to ask if we have failed in communicating advantages of the European project,’ says prime minister

 European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker (left) and European Council President Donald Tusk at a news conference after the European summit in Brussels, Belgium,  June 29th,  2016. Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

‘No single market a la carte’, warns Brussels after tough meeting on Brexit

Scotland’s first minister Nicola Sturgeon is welcomed by European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker ahead of a meeting  in Brussels  yesterday.  Photograph: Eric Vidal/Reuters

Spanish prime minister says if the UK leaves the EU, ‘Scotland leaves’

German Chancellor Angela Merkel listens to questions during a final media conference at an EU summit in Brussels on Wednesday. Photograph: Geert Vanden Wijngaert/AP

Empty chair at meeting of leaders symbolic of new situation in Europe

European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker waves as he gets into his car at the end of the second day of the EU summit in Brussels, Belgium. Photograph: Phil Noble/Reuters

Tusk: There will be ‘no single market á la carte’ for Britain

British prime minister David Cameron (centre)  among other European leaders at the EU summit in Brussels on June 28th. Photograph: François Lenoir/Reuters

Prime minister tells summit in Brussels the British will not ‘turn our backs on Europe’

European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker and David Cameron in Brussels. The British prime minister says the UK wants to retain access to the single market.  Photograph: Francois Lenoir/Reuters

Merkel says no way to avoid Brexit after ‘deep and intensive’ talks in Brussels

Taoiseach Enda Kenny arrives at the EU summit meeting on June 28th which concentrated on Brexit. Photograph: Philippe Huguen/AFP/Getty Images

At EU leaders’ summit member states discussed co-operation between the EU and Nato

Taoiseach Enda Kenny arrives before an EU summit meeting Tuesday at the European Union headquarters in Brussels. Photograph: Philippe Huguen/AFP/Getty Images

Fianna Fáil says Government needs to include Opposition in upcoming negotiations

European Commission president Jean- Claude Juncker blocks a photographer’s view of Nigel Farage, leader of UKIP, prior to the start of a plenary session of the European Parliament in Brussels, Belgium. Photograph: Oliver Hoslet/EPA

Jean-Claude Juncker says EU ‘cannot be embroiled in lasting uncertainty’ over Brexit

The  Scottish Saltire (centre), a Union Jack flag (left) and a European Union  flag  in front of the Scottish Parliament building in Edinburgh, Scotland on June 27th, 2016. The Brexit vote has thrown the relationship between the three political entities into turmoil. Photograph: Oli Scarff/AFP/Getty Images

Question of whether Scotland could remain in EU is highly political and legally complex

British prime minister David Cameron has  ruled out holding a second referendum to reverse the decision on Brexit, and announced that a special unit in government had been set up to prepare for negotiations to exit the EU. Photograph: Jon Nazca/Reuters

Police in Britain investigate spate of racist incidents since referendum decision

 German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Francois Hollande (R) and Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi depart after speaking to the media during talks at the Chancellery Monday in Berlin, Germany.  Photograph:  Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Hollande warns that uncertainty over UK leaving could lead to ‘irrational behaviour’

Soldiers taking part in the “Baltops” military exercise in Ustka, northern Poland, earlier in June. It is the largest and most important Nato exercise in the Baltic Sea. Photograph:  Adam Warzawa/EPA

Move to more closely align institutions will prove uncomfortable for Ireland

German chancellor Angela Merkel: meetings with Donald Tusk, François Hollande and Matteo Renzi today. Photograph: Kay Nietfeld/EPA

Commission president says he wants UK’s divorce papers on his desk ‘immediately’

As an island country operating one of world’s biggest international air routes between London and Dublin, Ireland is particularly exposed as Britain seeks to ensure easy access to the EU common aviation area. Photograph: Kate Geraghty

Agriculture, trade, aviation and energy among areas left uncertain by UK Brexit vote

Leave campaign leader Boris Johnson said Britain was part of Europe and always would be. Photograph: Peter Nicholls/Reuters

Johnson claims there will still be ‘intense European co-operation’

 A file shows  European Commissioner in charge of financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union, Lord Jonathan Hill. Mr Hill resigned on Saturday in the wake of the Brexit vote.   Photograph: EPA

Germany foreign minister says negotiations on UK’s exit should begin ‘as soon as possible’

Photographers aim their cameras as European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker  speaks during a news conference on Brexit. Photograph: Olivier Hoslet/EPA

‘What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger,’ says European Council president

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker comments on the Brexit referendum campaign during a meeting with the media in Brussels. Photograph:  EPA/Olivier Hoslet

‘The notion of ‘two-speed Europe” has long been seen as logical next step for Europe’

Brussels’ Grand Place. As the Brexit results began to filter through in the early hours, a new reality was dawning in Brussels

One outcome of the British exit is that Ireland and Malta will be the only countries where English is an official language

British prime Minister David Cameron said Britain should only give its formal notice of leaving the EU when a new leader is in place. Photograph: Ben Stansall/AFP/Getty Images

Top officials want UK to invoke Article 50, ‘however painful that process may be’

So long: A file image shows British prime minister David Cameron leaving an EU summit in Brussels, Belgium, in February 2016. Photograph: EPA/OLIVIER HOSLET

Analysis: Leave vote gives legitimacy to calls by eurosceptics in other states for ballots

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