World’s largest ship a Prelude to even bigger projects
Four football pitches would fit on Shell’s enormous floating gas processing facility
Prelude, which analysts says may cost over $12 billion to build and which is due to be producing by 2017, is a potential game changer for the oil and gas industry. Photograph: Shell Handout/Reuters
Handout photo of the 488 metre long hull of Shell’s Prelude floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) plant that has been floated out of the dry dock at the Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) yard in Geoje, South Korea. Photograph: Shell Handout/Reuters
The world’s biggest vessel has been floated for the first time. With a bow and stern half a kilometre apart, this potential game changer for the oil and gas industry could fit four football pitches on its deck.
When completed, the Royal Dutch Shell-owned vessel will be moored for 25 years in the Indian Ocean’s “cyclone alley” off Australia’s northwest coast and will produce enough gas to supply a city the size of Hong Kong.
Prelude, which analysts says may cost over $12 billion to build and which is due to be producing by 2017, will see the first use of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) - an as-yet untried technology.
If it is an economic success, gas fields worldwide that are too far out to sea and too small to develop any other way could become viable for LNG production.
“Yes we will move bigger and move into more extreme environments,” Bruce Steenson, Shell’s general manager of integrated gas programmes and innovation told Reuters last week. “We are designing a larger facility ... That will be the next car off the rails.”
“Design one, build many”
Shell has already started work on Browse, an even bigger facility.
“The Browse structure will be 90 per cent the same as Prelude,” Mr Steenson said, citing the “design one, build many” mantra Shell hopes will eventually pay off and placate shareholders worried about the firm’s total $45 billion-a-year capital spending bill.
Browse’s developer, Woodside Petroleum, said in October it may use as many as three of the FLNG vessels Shell is developing along with Samsung Heavy and oil and gas engineers Technip.
An even bigger FLNG plant than the ones to be built for Prelude and Browse could make life more interesting for the competition - a wide range of land-based “wannabe” LNG exporters in Canada, Russia and east Africa, all hoping to tap burgeoning Asian gas demand the same way a number of Australian and US-based LNG developments will over the coming few years.
Anchored about 200 km (125 miles) off the Australian coast, Prelude will cool the gas to reduce its volume by a factor of 600 and load it on to specialised LNG tankers.
Prelude will only produce about 3.6 million tonnes a year (mtpa) of LNG along with its 5.3 mtpa of liquids and other hydrocarbons - a fraction of some land-based LNG plants.
Mr Steenson envisages a bigger version could produce far more - giving it economies of scale closer to those to be enjoyed by bigger land-based producing plants such as Gorgon, a 15.6 mtpa plant taking shape on northwest Australia’s coast to tap offshore gas.
Gorgon, led by Shell’s US-based rival Chevron, should be producing in early 2015, well ahead of Prelude, but it is way over budget and now scheduled to cost $52 billion against an original $37 billion. Plans for a land-based Browse plant were cancelled this year as its likely cost reached $45 billion, and as the outlook for global gas demand faltered.
Shell has shied away from offering estimates of Prelude’s likely cost, but analysts say FLNG could end up less expensive. They have put the cost of Prelude at $10.8-$12.6 billion.
At 600,000 tonnes with its storage tanks full, Prelude will be vast, but it takes up just a quarter of the space a land-based LNG plant of a similar capacity would occupy because components are stacked on top of each other.
LNG plants need access to the ocean anyway so that LNG tankers can load. FLNG eliminates the need for land purchase and reduces environmental objections. With cooling water straight from the ocean and gas tipped piped straight into LNG tankers, there is no need for long seabed pipelines and jetty construction.
Shell’s earliest FLNG designs were made in the 1990s but ended up shelved because of economic recession and technical difficulties. Shell started looking again at the idea in the early 2000s, but it was the discovery of the Prelude field in 2007 - too small and too remote to develop any other way - that gave the technology its first shot in the real world.
A final investment decision was taken to go ahead with 488-metre long Prelude in 2011. Its keel was laid in May this year and two giant sections of its hull built on opposite sides of the harbour were joined together in the summer at Geoje Island.
As was the case with the pioneering design, the bigger FLNG vessel design awaits a suitable gas discovery to match it, Mr Steenson said.