What makes the stonewort “starry” are white clusters of tiny bulbils studding its stems like star-shaped earrings. Picture: Michael Viney

Genetic fingerprinting may be needed to trace the stonewort to the reedy channels of East Anglia

Red list: 40 of Ireland’s 244 types of water beetles are at risk. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: We have never known about more species – and the list is growing

Giant squid: The squid, like the octopus, edits thousands of genes, using RNA, to serve an exceptional and complex nervous system. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: Everything we know about how nerves work gleaned from squid nerves

Wild yews were part of Ireland’s first forests. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: Stephen Galvin’s work established the long-lived yew as a reliable barometer of environmental change

Paper nautilus: a glossy white fan of a shell, so fragile that the sun infused it, gleaming through every tight fold. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson belongs on the same shelf as Charles Darwin

Bracken: a single plant can eventually spread to fill a whole field. Illustration: Michael Viney Bracken: a single plant can eventually spread to fill a whole field – and it is very hard to get rid of. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: Is Roundup safe or carcinogenic? What about other herbicides?

How many must die?: a flight of young sparrows. Illustration: Michael Viney

The brilliant CB Moffat anticipated 21st-century avian population dynamics theory

Burnet rose: the low, densely prickled cushions of Rosa pimpinellifolia are easy to name. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: Hybridising habits and costume changes boost Ireland’s ‘Rosa’ roster

Seakale is reduced to ‘probably no more than 20 wild plants’ that ought to be left alone. Illustration: Michael Viney

Another Life: New survey finds just 27 sites that fit the EU prescription for perennially vegetated shingle, almost all within spe(...)

Doo Lough Pass. Illustration: Michael Viney

The lack of such a map is to the detriment of good planning and landscape policy

Yellow irises. Illustration: Michael Viney

There was an innocent time when one could just have thanked the sun, but that’s gone

Illustration: Michael Viney

The native oyster’s history tells both of a great loss from the coast’s ecosystem

Illustration: Michael Viney

The sight of sheep at a hedge got me thinking about animal curiosity

Dogs miss much of the colour we can see. Photograph: Niall Carson/PA

Michael Viney: You might wonder if any living thing sees Earth’s ‘true’ colours at all

Up in smoke?: stonechats favour nesting in furze. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: A blazing furze bush is a furnace of wildlife

Siskins at alder cones – small, mean and muscular, repelling any other bird daring to come near.

Another Life: A relative of the goldfinch, the siskin is ‘the most joyous of birds’

Beech trees on the Dark Hedges Road in Co Antrim, by Michael Viney for Weekend Review

‘The Hidden Life of Trees’ reveals a totally new insight and empathy towards trees

Decline in hill farming: only 8,500 commonage farmers have sheep, and only 6,000 of these have mountain breeds. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: Ecologists would leave them to nature. Teagasc and the EU prefer farming

Irish lakes are home to rare plants and fauna that few nonsnorkelers will ever see. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: Rare plants and fauna are a feature of Ireland’s hard-water lakes

Little egrets have colonised Ireland, wading in estuaries, marshes and coastal lagoons in almost every county. Drawing: Michael Viney

Michael Viney: It’s 20 years exactly since Egretta garzetta began breeding in Ireland

‘Invasive alien species’: In at least 10 counties wild boar are to be shot on sight. Illustration: Michael Viney

Michael Viney on Pádraic Fogarty’s ‘Whittled Away: Ireland’s Vanishing Nature’

Sea lettuce is nourished from the estuaries by decades of run-off from intensive dairy farming and nutrients from human sewage. Illustratration: Michael Viney

Sea lettuce is a serious problem for tourism, aquaculture and seaside communities

Mayo has more than 12,000km  of hedges, one-fifth of them along roads. Illustration: Michael Viney

Unnecessary changes to regulation could only have a negative impact on biodiversity

Potato blossom: I started planting in February, for even earlier great-flavoured spuds that we can eat in their skins. Illustration: Michael Viney

Most potatoes need up to 15 fungicide treatments. Could mapping their genome end blight?

Thornback ray. Cartilaginous species account for more than half the European list. Illustration: Michael Viney

Having survived in our seas for 420 million years, some species are now critically endangered

Violet sea snail: Janthina janthina makes a raft of bubbles by trapping air in a film of mucus that hardens into something like cellophane. Illustration: Michael Viney

Edward Lear couldn’t have dreamt up the ingenuity of the drifting predator ‘Janthina’

Mayo shipwreck: the twisted timbers after storms exposed them at Thallabawn in 1983. Painting: Michael Viney

Our columnist has been observing the local wreck for 40 years. Could it really be a medieval relic?

Severe damage to the stocks of sea trout in some Connacht rivers sparked the current research into the fish.

New research shows sea trout have more lice the closer they swim to salmon farms

Scots pines at Doolough, Co Mayo. Illustration: Michael Viney

The theory that this lofty Irish conifer became extinct has now been disproved

Do blackbirds find the modern city stressful?  Illustration: Michael Viney

How urban blackbirds differ from their country cousins

New arrival: the hazel dormouse came to Ireland recently, perhaps in French hay. Illustration: Michael Viney

From dormouse to whale, Ireland’s small but unique mammal community is doing well

Constructed wetlands promise relief from gathering floods and pollution of our waterways

A ferret imported from England cost 30 shillings. It needed muzzling when put down the  rabbit burrow or it would stay below to gnaw on its prey and then go to sleep. Illustration: Michael Viney

Author Michael Conry puts pre-myxo rabbit numbers at 40m, with half killed annually

My old dad  left me his restless work ethic, along with a dodgy heart. Armed with both, I’ve been sorting the seeds for another year in the polytunnel

I would like to hang around to see final episodes of US’s bizarre rush into trumpery

Perfect  purple: the greater butterwort wildflower of Kerry. Illustration: Michael Viney

A chronicle of Irish plants prompts reflection on grand floral designs not attempted

A storm petrel at sea by Michael Viney

BirdWatch Ireland says impact of fisheries on seabirds is thousands killed as bycatch

Ecosystem engineers: ants   can alter the properties of soil. Illustration: Michael Viney

No organism is more important than the ant to the complex ecology of our soil

Passion for trees: autumnal colours in Co Mayo. Illustration: Michael Viney

With the sycamore taking over, it is time to get less random about what trees we plant

Long-distance swimmer: one Irish eel covered 6,900km in 10 months. Illustration: Michael Viney

We used to think that eels sped to meet up in the Sargasso Sea for a single, springtime orgy, but it seems some are quite happy to(...)

The freshwater pearl mussel, which has been singled out for special threat of extinction. Illustration: Michael Viney

Environmental Protection Agency’s latest report makes for a very sobering read

In the 1980s there were about 5,000 breeding pairs of curlew in the Republic; today, surveys have found fewer than 150 pairs.

Decimation of nesting bird populations has prompted measures to protect habitats

Mweelrea: waiting at the top of the bog road for half my lifetime. Illustration: Michael Viney

Another Life: The €40,000 judgment for a woman who fell on the Wicklow Way, a strenuous hillwalking route, might trouble anyone wi(...)

This summer has demonstrated, once again, the very different regimes of weather in Britain and Ireland

Autumn in these islands is becoming a blurred and hesitant season, unmarked by anything so distinct as ‘the fall’

‘No helpless bit of flotsam’: a Portuguese man-of-war. Illustration: Michael Viney

The venomous ‘jellyfish’ on European coastlines are not the passive drifters they seem

Favoured food: A linnet at thistledown. Illustration: Michael Viney

The prickly problem of thistle removal can result in a sore wrist . . . and much muttering

Peak arrival: flocks of geese arrive from the Arctic in October. Illustration: Michael Viney

‘Anser albifrons flavirostris’, or the ‘bog goose’, long a traditional quarry of Ireland’s rural hunters, is now Europe’s rarest g(...)

Direction home: some seabirds use smell to  guide them. Illustration: Michael Viney

Maps for seabirds, rain for grass and some shade for Earth: the many gifts of DMS

Gale force: the wind carries scores of insects and spores. Illustration: Michael Viney

Their gossamer allows spiders to go ballooning, sometimes taking off in their millions

Sensitive: choughs, the red-billed crows of the coast. Illustration: Michael Viney

A reader’s report made me uneasy: choughs are deliciously wilful and wild; shall we see them tamed into pigeons by the Wild Atlant(...)

Virtual reality: a beanstalk twining up the Millennium Spire. Illustration: Michael Viney

The digitisation of human life suggests at least a psychic transformation of the species

Tallamh Bán: around a high bend on the Wild Atlantic Way. Illustration: Michael Viney

The US presidential candidates hopes a €9m wall will save his golf links in Co Clare. But nature might be more powerful than that

Urbanite: Vulpes vulpes has moved into towns. Illustration: Michael Viney

Dogs are catching ‘lungworm’ from molluscs infected with the potentially fatal Angiostrongylus vasorum. So many Irish foxes are in(...)

Impatient with Impatiens glandulifera: Himalayan balsam. Illustration: Michael Viney

The unprecedented spread of misplaced plants and animals, transported through global human activity, feeds growing argument among (...)

Elephant hawkmoth caterpillar: spectacular and fearsome. Illustration Michael Viney

A “red list” of Ireland’s threatened moth species finds about 16 per cent of our 500-odd larger moths warranting concern, with sev(...)

Sunbathing blackbird: enters a trance of voluptuous bliss. Illustration: Michael Viney

A preening blackbird, and concern about UV harm to Arctic wildlife

Insect orgy: a blue tit snatching a fly from alexanders. Illustration: Michael Viney

One study counted 118 insect species visiting hogweed, some for copulation. Such insect orgies are common to many umbellifers

Killers: orcas hunt at the top of the ocean food chain. Illustration: Michael Viney

The orcas that travel between Scotland and Ireland are fish eaters, even following salmon and mullet up the River Lee into Cork ci(...)

Pine marten: devours birds, rats, mice, snails and berries. Illustration: Michael Viney

Examining the droppings of the pine marten tells us much about the animal’s biology and population

Marsh saxifrage: part of the flora of peatland. Illustration: Michael Viney

It’s hard to see the saxifrage as useful in terms of offering food or medicine. But it’s part of the peatland flora that soaks up (...)

Invasive: mink are now too widespread to eradicate from Ireland. Illustration: Michael Viney

Half a century after the first escapes from fur farms, mink are now seen across Ireland

Home brew: making country wine is no more difficult than following any other recipe. Illustration: Michael Viney

Whether elderflower, blackcurrant, rhubarb or gooseberry, country wines livened up our social life in our first decades at Thallab(...)

Zostera: its thin leaves floating in the water like a mermaid’s emerald tresses, perhaps a metre long or more. Illustration: Michael Viney

In times long past, Zostera fringed every sheltered coast on both sides of the North Atlantic

Photo opportunity: Killary Harbour, on the Wild Atlantic Way. Illustration: Michael Viney

‘Ecological clerk of works’ is an unfamiliar job title. But the clerks look after the discovery points on Fáilte Ireland’s coastal(...)

Hoverflies: many are farmer friendly. Illustration: Michael Viney

Episyrphus balteatus is one of many Irish species with bodies striped in black and yellow in hope of protective confusion with the(...)

Dominant presence: ivy’s offence is firstly aesthetic. Illustration: Michael Viney

The debate continues about the pros and cons of our most widespread climbing plant

Wood carpeting bluebells: “Falls of sky-colour.” Illustration: Michael Viney   Falls of sky-colour: wood-carpeting bluebells. Illustration: Michael Viney

The animals’ rooting can keep both plants in check. But its toxin means that too much bracken on its own may not be good for them

Bright eyes: rabbits were brought in for food by Norman settlers. Illustration: Michael Viney

Ireland’s wildlife is a limited and tenuous network, much of it imported, in which the rabbit has an indispensable place

Mistle thrush: first recorded in Ireland in 1808. Illustration: Michael Viney

‘Storm-cock’ is an old, vernacular name for a bird imagined to predict bad weather

Sealed off by a landslide: a cave of ancient bear bones at Chauvet, in France, was shut off by a landslide 30,000 years ago. Illustration: Michael Viney

A bone found in Alice and Gwendoline Cave, in Co Clare, revealed that humans arrived in Ireland 12,000 years ago, a whole 2,500 ye(...)

Carbon sink: forests cover more than 10 per cent of the land in Ireland. Illustration: Michael Viney

For Ireland to have carbon-neutral agriculture by 2050, 1.25m hectares of trees need to be planted. What will it mean for our land(...)

Cheating heart: cuckoos lay eggs in other birds’ nests. Illustration: Michael Viney

Irish pipits, as I’ve watched many times, don’t hesitate to mob the hawk-like cuckoo at its teetering perch on a telegraph wire

Blackbirds are notorious robbers and versatile snackers. Illustration: Michael Viney

While blackbirds and starlings vary their menu, crows like to bury a little snack for later

A friend welcomed a badger sett on his land even when they wrenched a sheaf from his best daffodils, just nicely in flower. Illustration:  Michael Viney

Research into getting badgers to eat drugs that counter TB has found they like chocolate

Another Life: Michael Viney on the acre in the late 1970s (with a sky from one of his illustrations for his column)

The English journalist and naturalist – this paper’s longest-serving columnist – has always been a keen-eyed yet sympathetic chron(...)

Safe flight: it is important to respect nesting grounds of birds in remote areas. Illustration: Michael Viney

The wear and tear of tourist footfall poses a threat to seabirds of the northeast Atlantic

River life: a caddis fly by the stream. Illustration: Michael Viney

Caddisflies could take a prize for their variation of species

Irish resident: the bank vole seems to have arrived with German machinery for the Ardnacrusha power project in the 1920s. Illustration: Michael Viney

Major changes have been set in train by an invasive little vole and an alien shrew, with consequences for the barn owl

Great spotted woodpecker: well established on east coast of Ireland. Illustration: Michael Viney

A bird that was once widespread in Ireland is returning

Tully: my drawing may exaggerate the bungalows across the bay although the winter sun catches enough gables to speak of great change. Illustration: Michael Viney

Refections on a life less ordinary by the stormy sea in west Galway

Wetlands: a home for wildlife, including newts. Illustration: Michael Viney

As climate changes, bringing both drought and floods, wetlands will be a moderator

Nephrops prawn: more than 80 per cent of them collected in the Clyde firth in Scotland and surrounding sea lochs had eaten plastic, including monofilament line and fragments of plastic bags. Illustration: Michael Viney Nephrops prawn: more than 80 per cent of them collected in the Clyde firth in Scotland and surrounding sea lochs had eaten plastic, including monofilament line and fragments of plastic bags. Illustration: Michael Viney

Plastic litter that has ended up in the ocean is taking a special toll on marine life

Claws for concern: marine life is vulnerable to trawling. Illustration: Michael Viney

Satellites can track fishing vessels, but enforcement of marine conservation zones requires patrol boats

Syn-bio fun: fluorescent pet fish. Illustration: Michael Viney

Syn-bio provides cheap, standardised, off-the-shelf ‘bricks’ of DNA that build new forms of organism. But many fear it could get o(...)

Swan song: could the whoopers desert Ireland too? Illustration: Michael Viney

Could whooper swans leave Ireland in a migratory change shaped over many years?

Allotments: a big part of the Galway food scene. Illustration: Michael Viney

Green ideas make so much sense given the energy spent in transporting foods from every corner of the globe

Protected: lampreys live in the lower Shannon. Illustration: Michael Viney

The Shannon is Ireland’s wildlife heartland, partly because its floods have set such close bounds to farming

Autumn crocus: the rare – and toxic – Irish wild flower. Illustration: Michael Viney

Some of the ingredients in your kitchen are rich in aromatic myristicin, which is a molecular precursor of MMDA, a drug similar to(...)

Starry starry night: Dark Sky Ireland finds  more value in an unpolluted night than in filling B&Bs with star-struck winter hobbyists. Illustration: Michael Viney

Living in remote areas lets you enjoy the clarity of night skies without light pollution

Scots pines at Doolough: remnants of Ireland’s ancient pines lay buried beneath. Illustration: Michael Viney

In Mayo, trees planted by a 19th-century Scottish sheep rancher supplanted Ireland’s ancient pines

Into the light: uncovered pine stumps on the shore. Illustration: Michael Viney

Ireland offered has dramatic examples of rogue waves, including those that swamped the bow of LÉ ‘Róisín’

Imprints from the past: successive ice ages and weathering have left the fossils of early limestone Ireland’s chief visible heritage. Illustration: Michael Viney

Limestone formed when Ireland was still down near the equator, its deserts and dunes flooded by warm and shallow seas

Timely: this autumn’s supermoons and all the talk of life on Mars give a topical edge to I Was There’s distillation of evolution. Illustration: Michael Viney

‘I Was There’, ‘Sea Gastronomy’, ‘Ireland’s Birds: Myth, Legends and Folklore’, ‘Dordán Dúlra’ and ‘This Is the Burren’

Heads down: the ewes turned their rumps to the wind. Illustration: Michael Viney

I feel particular despair for all the young city women rushing through their lives, lost in a hectic flow of virtual conversations

Lumbricus terrestrism draws leaves down. Illustration: Michael Viney

In Octobers past, this was my month for lifting the maincrop potatoes, taking care to rebury every earthworm tossed aloft, before (...)

Summer visitor from Africa: the death’s head hawkmoth photographed by Michael Bell

A devil’s coach horse, a trapped crow and a death’s head hawkmoth

Snack time: a snail on petalwort. Illustration: Michael Viney

This coastal plant helps to stabilise exposed sand against the pull of wind and soak up eroding water

Earth star mushrooms, tar spots, pheasants and spaniels

Hare-brained: human population growth threatens the planet. Illustration:  Michael Viney

Mad growth of human race gobbles up space and wipes out ever more species

Aching bee stings, moulting blackbirds and ‘dog’s sick’ mould

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