Who can recall the fallen greats of the dog-eat-dog tech world?
The history of digital technology is littered with the corpses of companies that didn’t make the cut
Long gone logos (from top): Digital Equipment Corporation; Sun; Silicon Graphics; Netscape; Burroughs; RCA; and Control Data Corporation
They were some of the biggest, most powerful, most innovative and most influential companies of the digital age. Many were big Irish employers at one time, too. But they have vanished.
The technology sector changes so swiftly that many companies that dominated the sector even just a decade ago are now faint and fast-fading memories. Ironically, in some cases the very trends they pioneered led to their demise, as they failed to keep up, change fast enough, or realise a long-stable market was going, going, gone.
Sometimes they were acquired by a more successful rival. Others simply imploded.
Where did they go? And how many of these do you remember? For better or worse, a generation is entering the job market for whom some of these iconic tech names and brands fail to ring a bell.
The pioneers in the 1960s
The eight largest computer companies in this early decade of computing were Burroughs, IBM, Honeywell, NCR Corporation, Control Data Corporation, General Electric, RCA and Univac. They were known colloquially as Snow White (IBM) and the Seven Dwarves (the rest).
Only one name – IBM – survives as a major and instantly recognisable computing player today, though NCR was re-established as a standalone point-of-sale equipment brand in 1996 by AT&T, which had bought it some years before.
Honeywell still makes business and consumer electronics but not computers (it bought out General Electric’s computing division in the 1970s, then Bull bought Honeywell’s computing division in 1989).
Univac was sold to Remington Rand, which was acquired by mainframe maker Sperry. Sperry acquired RCA’s computing division.
Burroughs merged with Sperry in the 1980s and became Unisys, which continues today, though it’s not a name recognised by many outside the business technology world.
The company’s computing business was eventually sold to Syntegra, a division of BT, in the 1990s.
Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation began its rise in the 1960s, and by the 1970s was a major computing player, supplying powerful high end microcomputers. Its PDP computers would form the first hubs of a new military research experiment that would one day become the internet.
Perhaps the writing was on the wall early on for DEC, when founder Ken Olson in 1977 famously derided the move towards smaller computers with the comment, “There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home”.
Wrong. Though Digital would remain a major computing force through the late 1980s (and employ thousands in research, services and sales in Galway and Dublin), it was sold to PC-maker Compaq in 1998.
It wasn’t a good idea. Compaq consequently struggled, and was bought by HP in 2002.
Sun and Silicon Graphics
Founded in 1982, and emerging out of Stanford University, Sun (from Stanford University Network) was profitable from its first quarter and became a giant in computing when its high end workstations and servers became backbone computers of the dotcom “bubble” era.
At the height of the bubble, Sun’s (in)famous slogan was, “We put the dot in .com”, a marketing ploy it must have regretted as the dotcom crash created negative feeling for companies in the sector, and engulfed the very market that had built Sun into a powerhouse.
As desktops grew powerful enough to take on, cheaply, the tasks once performed by workstations, Sun struggled.
Once touted as a potential acquirer of then-beleaguered Apple, the company rejected a takeover offer from IBM and was eventually bought by Oracle, where the name is retained on Oracle hardware products.