Amam, a 17-year-old refugee from the Syrian town of Latakia, shouts after his sister and mother were detained by Hungarian police outside the railway station in Budapest on Wednesday. Photograph: Reuters

Securing support for a pan-European policy on asylum will be a challenge

Catherine Day: former secretary general of the European Commission is succeeded by Alexander Italianer. Photograph: Alan Betson

Day could be become adviser to European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker

Mmigrants being rescued south of Lampedusa island in the Mediterranean in August. Photograph: EPA

Case regarding Tunisian migrants could have major effect on EU asylum law

An Intercity train. File photograph: Irish Rail/Iarnród Éireann

EU Commission wants changes that would open up sector to competitors

A fire  started by striking French ferry workers caused further delays to traffic on the French side. Photograph: Philippe Huguen/AFP/Getty Images

Migrants attempting to enter tunnel nightly, as French lorry strike exacerbates traffic chaos

The Irish railway system has always been operated by Irish Rail, part of the State-owned CIÉ

The European Commission is working on legislation to establish a single railway market across the EU

Migrants who managed to pass the police block on the Eurotunnel site race towards the boarding docks in Coquelles near Calais, northern France, on Wednesday. Photograph: AFP/Getty Images

UN special envoy Peter Sutherland says media exaggerating on migrants flooding UK

One of the shops in the migrant camp known as the new Jungle in Calais, France. Photograph: PA

Britain and France working to return people to Africa and deal with the criminal gangs

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras delivers his speech during a central committee meeting of the Syriza party in Athens on Thursday. Photograph: Yiannis Kourtoglou

Greek PM Alexis Tsipras surprises Syriza with call for party referendum on bailout

British chancellor  George Osborne  and French economy minister Emmanuel Macron: the negotiations on the  Greek bailout strengthened the argument of British Eurosceptics. Photograph: Eric Piermont/AFP/Getty Images

While talks continue about economics, the migrant crisis is now the dominant issue

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras: argues that Greece is now front-page news and has been presented in “a positive light”. Photograph: Kostas Baltas/Reuters

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras has ‘no regrets’ about how he has handled crisis

Iarnród Éireann has introduced a cost-saving programme and has debts of about €150m

EC proposal would mean stiff competition for Iarnród Éireann

Migrants walk near the road where lorries pass after leaving their hiding spot at the Eurotunnel site in Calais. Photograph: Pascal Rossignol/Reuters

Death of refugees in Eurotunnel has pushed two countries to work together more closely

Kurds protest outside the Turkish embassy in Paris. The Turkish military confirmed on Tuesday it had used jets to target Kurdish rebels. Photograph: EPA

Turkey makes no request for military support during rare emergency meeting of ambassadors

Protesters carry the coffin of Gunay Ozarslan, killed by Turkish police at an anti-terror operation, in Istanbul,  yesterday. Photograph: Sedat Suna/EPA

After Suruc horror, Turkey to ‘ramp up’ military response to Islamic State

The LÉ Eithne in the Mediterranean. Photograph: Irish Defence Forces

Government agrees to relocation scheme as part of bid to tackle crisis in Mediterranean

EU commissioner Valdis Dombrovskis, speaks at a news conference on Wednesday. He has confirmed the troika is to return to Greece for negotiations. Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

IMF managing director Christine Lagarde reiterated her call for substantial debt relief

Mario Draghi (centre) following a meeting of the ECB’s governing council in Frankfurt. Photograph: Arne Dedert/EPA

Eurogroup ministers approve €7bn bridging loan in important political signal

People line up at an ATM outside an Alpha Bank branch in Athens, Greece on July 16th, 2015. Greece awoke with a political hangover on Thursday after parliament approved a stringent bailout programme, thanks to the votes of the pro-European opposition, amid the worst protest violence this year. Photograph: Yiannis Kourtoglou/Reuters

Eurogroup’s approval of €7bn bridging loan means Greeks set to make key payment

Greece has been in arrears to the IMF since June 30th and missed a further €450m payment on Monday

With a deal far from done, Greek debt relief and bridging loans are obstacles

With Greece facing a €3.5bn payment to the ECB on Monday, creditors are racing to devise a plan to provide fast cash to the struggling economy to avert full- scale default

Differences remain among euro zone states about tackling Athens’s short-term needs

Women stand by a slogan written on the pavement reading ‘Here lies Syriza, the party I once supported ‘ in front of the Greek parliament in Athens. Photograph: Louisa Gouliamaki/AFP/Getty Images

Britain opposes contributing loans for Greece saying euro zone must ‘foot the bill’

European Stability Mechanism (ESM) managing director Klaus Regling: says  he expects the IMF to contribute to any third bailout package, once Greece’s arrears with it have been paid.  Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

IMF assessment may make it harder for Tsipras to secure approval from MPs

Italian Finance Minister Pier Carlo Padoan, Dutch Finance Minister , President of Eurogroup Jeroen Dijsselbloem, International Monetary Fund managing director Christine Lagarde, Irish Finance Minister Michael Noonan and French finance minister Michel Sapin at the start of a special Eurogroup Finance ministers meeting on Greek crisis at EU council headquarters in Brussels. Photograph: Olivier Hoslet/EPA

Michael Noonan says Ireland will contribute to Greek bailout via ESM fund

A pensioner waits to receive part of his pension at a National Bank branch in Athens. Euro zone leaders clinched a deal with Greece on Monday to negotiate a third bailout to keep the near-bankrupt country in the euro zone after a whole night of haggling at an emergency summit. Photograph: Yiannis Kourtoglou/Reuters

No immediate budgetary implications for Ireland if third bailout agreed, says Noonan

Euro group  .... President of the eurogroup Jeroen Dijsselbloem (centre) is seen with   Minister for Finance Michael Noonan   prior to the start of the eurogroup meeting in Brussels on Monday.   Photograph:  Thierry Charlier/AFP/Getty Images

No-one, neither Greeks nor European leaders, comes out of crisis smelling of roses

Protesting outside the Greek parliament against agreement for a third bailout with euro zone leaders. Photograph: Getty Images

PM will need opposition support to ensure passage of contentious bailout package

Taoiseach Enda Kenny leaves at the end of Monday’s  EU summit on the Greek debt crisis.  Photograph: Thierry Charlier/AFP/Getty Images

Taoiseach welcomes agreement but Adams says Government sided with the strong

Head of the eurogroup Jeroen Dijsselbloem: “A lot of trust had been lost . . . it has to be rebuilt.”  Photograph: Thierry Charlier/AFP/Getty Images

Dijsselbloem says Greece must pass reforms before talks begin on third bailout of €86bn

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras (right) and  finance minister Euclid Tsakalotos depart following all-night bailout talks in Brussels. Photograph: Bloomberg

Euro ministers to look at ‘bridge financing’ as Greek parliament debates package

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras and his finance minister  Euclid Tsakalotos  depart following all-night bailout talks in Brussels. Photograph: Bloomberg

Agreement gives political cover to ECB to keep propping up the Greek banks

Taoiseach Enda Kenny arrives for a meeting in Brussels of the leaders of the 19 countries that use the euro currency, on July 12th, 2015. Photograph: Jean-Christophe Verhaegen/AFP/Getty Images

Involvement of IMF, establishment of €50bn fund were ‘main sticking points’ of discussion

A woman burns the flag of the ruling party Syriza, while surrounded by journalists, in front of the Greek parliament in Athens during an anti-EU demonstration in Athens on Monday. Photograph: Louise Gouliamak/AFP/Getty

Street protests as negotiations on a third bailout for Greece will take at least four weeks, eurogroup predicts

Protestors outside the Greek parliament. Photograph: Yorgos Karahalis/Bloomberg

Euro zone finance ministers will gather in Brussels in last-ditch attempt to resolve issue

A protestor holds a European Union flag with a euro symbol at Syntagma Square in Athens. Photograph: Bloomberg

Analysis: Discussion has moved on to formulation of €53bn multi-annual bailout

Greek finance minister Euclid Tsakalotos and his predecessor Yanis Varoufakis talk during a parliamentary session in Athens. Photograph: Giorgos Kontarinis/Eurokinissi/Reuters

New bailout proposals submitted by Greece, seeking €53bn loan package from creditors

German chancellor Angela Merkel: has clarified that a debt haircut for Greece is out of the question. Photograph: Antonio Bronic/Reuters

Europe clashes on views as to whether Greece should be forgiven some of its debt

A street vendor prepares corn for sale during a pro-European Union demonstration in front of the Greek parliament in Athens. Photograph: Louisa Gouliamaki/AFP/Getty Images

Package of economic reforms approved by majority of Greece’s cabinet ministers

European Council president Donald Tusk: “This is really and truly the final wake-up call for Greece but also for us, our last chance.”  Photograph: François Lenoir/Reuters

European Central Bank postpones decision on giving further funding

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras attends a debate on Greece at the European Parliament in Strasbourg on Tuesday. Photograph: Vincent Kessler/Reuters

Greek prime minister quickly squandered political momentum after referendum

 Greece’s prime minister Alexis Tsipras talks with  president  Prokopis Pavlopoulos in the Presidential Hall in Athens. Photograph: Fotis Plegas G/EPA.

Athens must submit detailed reform proposals or risk expulsion from currency

 Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras leaves at the end of a euro zone summit at the European Council headquarters in Brussels on Tuesday. Photograph: Laurent Dubrule/EPA

All 28 EU leaders to meet on Sunday to conside a third bailout programme

Newly appointed Greek finance minister Euclid Tsakalotos during a eurogroup meeting ahead of a summit at the EU headquarters in Brussels. Photograph: John Thys/AFP/Getty Images

New Greek finance minister arrives ‘empty-handed’ for meeting in Brussels

 Andrej Babis: Greece has ‘gone bankrupt four times in the last 200 years and should do so a fifth time’. Photograph: Michal Cizek/AFP/Getty Images

North, south, east and west, goodwill toward Greece is running on empty

Finance minister Michael Noonan said:  “There were no specific demands for haircuts and I know from previous meetings it wouldn’t be acceptable to any of the other countries.” Photograph: Stephanie Lecocq/EPA

Greek government is expected to submit a written bailout proposal on Wednesday

French EPP President Joseph Daul aat a European People’s Party meeting. He said: “no other country” has advanced without implementing structural reforms, as he criticised Syriza’s “political gambling.” Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

Crisis accentuates policy differences between political groups in European Parliament

Minister for Finance  Michael Noonan said dDebt restructuring has always been part of the discussion around how to deal with the Greek debt crisis.

Minister says there are several options on reprofiling and restructuring Greek debt

All 28 European Union leaders are due to meet next Sunday to discuss support for Greece. Photograph:   Francois Lenoir/Reuters

Merkel says finance available if Greek proposals ‘satisfactory’

European Commission vice-president Valdis Dombrovskis: European taxpayers had offered “unprecedented financial assistance” to Greece. Photograph: François Lenoir/Reuters

No vote deemed to ‘widen the gap’ between Greece and other euro countries

Yanis Varoufakis, Greece’s finance minister, exits a polling station after voting in the national referendum in Athens. Photograph: Yorgos Karahalis/Bloomberg

Greece finance minister has emergency meeting with country’s top bankers

No supporters celebrate near the Greek parliament in Syntagma Square, Athens on Sunday night. After a resounding No vote in the referendum  the focus will turn to Frankfurt and the ECB’s next move.   Photograph: Yannis Behrakis/Reuters

Dire state of Greek banks must be addressed before even bigger difficulty of third bailout

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras addresses  supporters during a  No campaign rally in Syntagma Square in preparation for Sunday’s referendum, on July 3rd, 2015 in Athens, Greece. Photograph:  Milos Bicanski/Getty Images

Tsipras urges voters to reject terms of bailout agreement offered by creditors

Yanis Varoufakis, Greece’s finance minister, who said on RTÉ radio yesterday that a Greek bailout deal was imminent. Photograph: Yorgos Karahalis/Bloomberg

Greek finance minister’s claim debt deal was ‘more or less done’ is dismissed

Klaus Regling: as director of the ESM he helps manage the bailout programme and loans. Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

The ESM will be the fulcrum of any new accord on funding for Athens

A woman walks past posters in Athens stating “No” ahead of Sunday’s referendum.  Photograph: Aris Messinis/AFP/Getty

Debt negotiations on hold pending outcome of Greece’s referendum

Anti-Euro protesters scuffle with riot police at the European Union representation offices in Athens, Greece, July 2nd, 2015. Photograph: Panayiotis Tzamaros/Reuters

Missed repayment and capital controls likely to have ‘significant adverse impact’

Police stand guard as a woman withdraws money from an  in Athens on Thursday  during a demonstration supporting the No vote for the upcoming referendum on Greece’s bailout terms. Photograph: Louisa Gouliamaki/AFP/Getty Images.

Days after default, IMF says Athens needs debt relief and €50bn in new financing

A woman watches Greece’s prime minister Alexis Tsipras’ TV announcement in a electronics shop in central Athens. The people will vote in a referendum on the rescue plan for their country on Sunday. Photograph: EPA

Alexis Tsipras offers big concessions to creditors but backtracks within hours

Alexis Tsipras, Greece’s prime minister: Syriza’s disastrous negotiating strategy also means the Greek public is being offered a deal they would have probably secured anyway. Photographer: Yorgos Karahalis/Bloomberg

The sorry tale of Greek bailout is a damning indictment of European monetary union

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsirpas delivers a televised address to the nation from his office at Maximos Mansion on Wednesday. Photograph: Getty

Tsipras’s acceptance of latest bailout proposal a surprise on day of turmoil and confusion

Nein, the German word for no, in a piece of graffiti displaying the European Union’s flag and a euro symbol on a street in Athens, Greece ahead of a referendum on the country’s bailout terms scheduled for this weekend. Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras has indicated he’s ready to end his standoff with creditors. Photographer: Kostas Tsironis/Bloomberg

Analysis: Ahead of eurogroup talks on aid package, Greece’s PM finds himself in untenable position

Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsirpas delivers a televised address to the nation from his office at Maximos Mansion  in Athens, Greece. Photograph: Getty

Eurogroup to wait for the outcome of the Greece referendum before any further talks

A worker at the State Printing Office in Athens packs printed ballot papers for Sunday’s referendum. Simela Pantzartzi/EPA.

Third bailout possible only after Greek referendum, says Merkel

Protestors gather during a demonstration in support of the European Union (EU) in Athens, Greece on Tuesday. Photograph: Bloomberg

Last-minute appeal to extend second Greek programme rejected on Tuesday night

Pro-Euro protesters hold a large European flag reading “Yes” in front of the parliament building in Athens on Tuesday evening. Photograph: Getty

Jeroen Dijsselbloem says country’s stance towards its creditors would have to change

Pensioners waiting outside a closed National Bank branch and hoping to get their pensions, argue with a bank employee in Iraklio in Crete. Photograph: Stefanos Rapanis/Reuters

France trying to get Greece back into negotiations as bailout nears expiration

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker gives a statement  on the situation in Greece, at the EU commission headquarters in Brussels. Photograph: Reuters/Yves Herman

US intervention shows geopolitical importance of Greek’s EU membership

A protester flashes a victory sign behind a Greek flag in front of the parliament building, during an anti-austerity rally in Athens, Greece. Photograph: Yannis Behrakis/Reuters

Thousands back government in Athens march

Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras during a parliamentary session in Athens, Greece. Photograph: Milos Bicanski/Getty Images

Greece looks closer to exiting the euro than ever before – but it’s not over yet

The screen of an ATM at a branch of Greece’s National Bank announces that the withdrawal of money is not possible, in Athens this morning. Photograph: Orestis Panagiotou/EPA

Six months of Greek turmoil leading to possible Grexit?

People march in Athens  on June 28th, 2015 during a demonstration calling for a ‘No’ in the  referendum on funding proposals from Greece’s creditors and for Greece’s exit from the euro zone. Photograph: Louisa Gouliamaki/AFP/Getty Images

Coalition discusses contingency plans after chaotic breakdown in debt talks

Michael Noonan: ‘I thought there was a basis for a solution in the two papers.’ Photograph: Michel Euler/AP

European Commission publishes bailout proposal discussed before talks broke down

Greece’s prime minister Alexis Tsipras speaks at the country’s parliament. ‘Tsipras will have to resign if the referendum results in a signal of support for the euro’. Photograph: Kostas Tsironis/Bloomberg

Next 48 hours crucial after bailout extension refused and pressure on banks grows

People line up to withdraw cash on the Greek island of Crete on Sunday. Photograph: Stefanos Rapanis/Reuters.

Daily withdrawal limit of €60 to be imposed on bank machines on Tuesday as default draws closer

Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis attends a euro zone finance ministers emergency meeting in Brussels on Saturday. Photograph: Reuters

Michael Noonan suggests Greece impose a bank holiday on Monday as default looms

Peter Sutherland: said the migration crisis was a problem “which can only be dealt with collectively, not in isolation to one another”.  Photograph: Aidan Crawley

Agreement reached on voluntary basis, suggesting that some countries may not take part in the process

Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras arrives at  the Maximos Mansion in Athens for a crucial governmental council meeting  yesterday evening. Photograph: Alkis Konstantinidis/Reuters

Euro finance ministers meet for fifth time in over week in latest bid for agreement

A lorry driver in Calais, France gestures at migrants as they  try to  board lorries bound for the UK on June 25th, 2015. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Relocation move on the agenda but no official backing of mandatory proposal

 Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras, Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi and German chancellor Angela Merkel share a light moment during the EU summit in Brussels. Photograph: Olivier Hoslet/EPA

Negotiations between Alexis Tsipras and country’s creditors break down again

European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker and Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras in Brussels. Tsipras phoned the Greek president on Thursday to brief him on the negotiations. Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

After all the wrangling, the next step will be up to the Greek government

TaoiseachEnda Kenny arrives for a European People’s Party (EPP) meeting  in Brussels. Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

Taoiseach predicts talks at Brussels summit will extend into weekend

 Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras leaves by car after attending an emergency meeting with the heads of the three creditor institutions in Brussels. Photograph: Jasper Juinen/Bloomberg

Greece’s international creditors gave Athens ultimatum to come up with reform plan

 Greece’s prime minister Alexis Tsipras is welcomed by European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker ahead of a meeting on Greece in Brussels. Photograph: Julien Warnand/EPA

EU summit is once again headlined by instability in euro zone’s most indebted state

British prime minister David Cameron, who is due to set out the UK’s plans for a renegotiation of its European Union membership at a summit on the Greek crisis. Photograph: Carl Court/Getty Images

British prime minister will lay out proposals for renegotiating membership at summit

Greece crisis: The Greek government said the institutions had tabled a proposal that transfers the burden of austerity to workers and pensions in a way that is “socially unfair”. Photograph: Getty Images

International Monetary Fund fears plans for €8bn adjustment overreliant on tax rises

Irish EU official Catherine Day is to step down as Secretary General of the European Commission at the end of August following almost 10 years in the role.  Photograph: Alan Betson / The Irish Times.

Irish official has been secretary general for almost a decade

Alexis Tsipras  said that some of the creditors had not yet accepted the latest Greek proposals, criticising the IMF in particular

EU ministers to gather in Brussels for last ditch Greece talks

The EU’s growing power in the field of data protection and internet regulation has divided member states, pitting a number of so-called “northern” countries including Ireland, Britain and the Netherlands against countries such as France and Germany. Photograph: PA

EU needs to get ‘regulatory balance right’

Pensioners gather in central Athens during their rally against austerity measures. Photograph: Louisa Gouliamaki/AFP/Getty Images

Euro zone finance ministers gather in third attempt this week to reach compromise

A pro European Union demonstration in Thessaloniki, Greece, Photographer: Konstantinos Tsakalidis/Bloomberg

Finance ministers keen to sign off on details but Tsipras faces dissent

Taoiseach Enda Kenny said European leaders attending a summit in Brussels yesterday agreed   Greece should remain within the euro zone. Photograph: The Irish Times

Greece has been granted a two-day reprieve in its campaign for new rescue loans

 Greece prime minister Alexis Tsipras (left) and European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker ahead of an emergency leaders summit on Greece at the European Commission in Brussels, on Monday. Photograph: EPA

Athens submits revised funding proposal to creditors but crunch talks fail to yield solution

Germany’s finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble taking part in the emergency Eurogroup finance ministers meeting on Greece in Brussels. Photograph: Emmanuel Dunand/AFP/Getty Images

Frankfurt yesterday sanctioned a further liquidity injection for Greece’s banks

Taoiseach Enda Kenny arrives in Brussels for a Eurozone emergency summit on Greece. Photograph: Charles Platiau/Reuters.

Angela Merkel says ‘no basis’ for a decision on matter tonight as European leaders meet

European Central Bank sanctions further support for the Greek banking system

Prime minister Alexis Tsipras of Greece and president Vladimir Putin of Russia meet at an economic forum in St Petersburg, Russia, on Friday. Photograph: New York Times.

Kenny says time is running out to reach a solution, country getting close to ‘crisis time’

French finance minister Michel Sapin talks to his Greek counterpart Yanis Varoufakis (right) during an European Union finance ministers meeting in Luxembourg. Photograph: Francois Lenoir/Reuters

Frankfurt raises cap on emergency liquidity amid run on Greek lenders

Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis talks to International Monetary Fund managing director Christine Lagarde during the euro zone finance ministers meeting in Luxembourg on Thursday. Photograph: Reuters

Emergency summit of euro zone prime ministers called to deal with mounting crisis

Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis talks to  Minister for Finance Michael Noonan at  an annual meeting of the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) board of governors ahead of a eurogroup  meeting in Luxembourg on June 18th, 2015. Photograph: Francois Lenoir/Reuters

ECB consulted on contingency plans for potential Grexit, says Michael Noonan

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