EC to inquire into Irish tax arrangements offered to Apple
Investigation to ask if corporate tax paid by Apple complies with EU rules on state aid
The finding last year by a US Senate committee that Apple had paid corporate tax of 2 per cent or less in Ireland caused consternation in the US and abroad. Photograph: David Paul Morris/Bloomberg
The investigation, which follows an informal inquiry by the European Commission, will examine whether the corporate tax paid by Apple complies with EU rules on state aid.
The commission inquiry relates to the Irish branches of two Apple entities - Apple Sales International and of Apple Operations Europe.
The focus of the EU investigation is on tax rulings - so-called comfort letters given by the tax authorities to individual companies on specific tax matters. While EU law allows countries to grant specific tax arrangements to companies, these are deemed anti-competitive if they grant a selective advantage to a particular group of companies.
Following its initial enquiry into the calculations used to set tax in specific rulings offered to Apple, the commission “has concerns that they could underestimate the taxable profit and thereby grant an advantage to the respective companies by allowing them to pay less tax”.
In particular, the commission is examining the practice of transfer pricing - the practice of shifting profits between entities within a company, which allows companies to reduce their tax bill.
“In the current context of tight public budgets, it is particularly important that large multinationals pay their fair share of taxes,” EU Competition Commissioner Joaquín Almunia said.
“Under the EU’s state aid rules, national authorities cannot take measures allowing certain companies to pay less tax than they should if the tax rules of the member state were applied in a fair and non-discriminatory way.”
Responding to today’s announcement, Apple said it had received “no selective treatment” from Irish officials.
“Apple is subject to the same tax laws as scores of other international companies doing business in Ireland, ” the company said. “Apple pays every euro of every tax that we owe. Since the iPhone launched in 2007, our taxes in Ireland have increased 10-fold.”
The company said it was “proud to have been doing business in Cork” since 1980.
Responding to the European Commission’s announcement of a formal investigation, a spokesman for the Department of Finance said Ireland “is confident that there is no state aid rule breach in this case and we will defend all aspects vigorously”.
“Like other tax administrations in other countries, the Revenue Commissioners, in certain limited circumstances, operate a system of non-binding advance opinions where companies can seek advice on the correct application of the law in their self-assessed tax filings. This facility is available to all taxpayers, including companies, both large and small,” the Department of Finance said.